How Much ‘Europeanness’ Remains in Contemporary Russia?

in Anthropological Journal of European Cultures
View More View Less
  • 1 Tomsk State University dlarisa@inbox.ru
Restricted access

Abstract

This article discusses the fluctuation of Russian attitudes towards Europe during the last twenty-five years. ‘Europeanness’ is connected to EU efforts of ‘Europeanisation’ and ‘normalisation’ of Russia on EU terms. At the same time, the EU has tried to monopolise the notion of ‘Europe’ and pretends to fulfil all its ideals and values. The continued expansion of the EU towards Russia’s former partners, and conflicts in contested neighbourhoods, has ushered in the feeling among Russians of being ‘different’ (‘Europeans’, yet with a desire to be great, strong and feared). Russia once again plays the role of a revisionist power, thus undermining the EU claim to represent the whole of Europe. Russia may be excluded from formal European organisations, but it cannot be excluded from an ‘imaginable’ community of Europe as a cultural phenomenon to which many Russians still attribute personal and collective meaning.

Contributor Notes

Larisa Deriglazova, Department of World Politics, Tomsk State University, Russia (dlarisa@inbox.ru)

Anthropological Journal of European Cultures

(formerly: Anthropological Yearbook of European Cultures)

  • Analysis of the Perception of the EU and EU’s Policies Abroad. Final Report Annexes (2015), <http://www.jrf.org.uk/press/leave-voters-felt-ignored-and-left-behind-brexit-poll>, 7 December (accessed February 2017).

  • Averre, D. (2009), ‘Competing Rationalities: Russia, the EU and the “Shared Neighbourhood”’, Europe-Asia Studies 61, no. 10, 689713. doi:10.1080/09668130903278918

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Best, H. (2012), ‘Elite-population Gap in the Formation of Political Identities: A Cross-cultural Investigation’, in O. Gaman-Golutvina and A. Klemeshev (eds), Political Elites in New and Old Democracies (Kaliningrad: Baltic Federal University Press), 304317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Best, H., G. Lengyel and L. Verzichelli (eds) (2012), The Europe of Elites: A Study into the Europeanness of Europe’s Political and Economic Elites (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bordachev, T. (2003), ‘Strategiya’ i Strategii’, in A. Moshes (ed.), Rossiya i Evropejskij Soyuz: Pereosmyslivaya Strategiyu Vzaimootnoshenij (Moscow: Gendal’f).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cotta, M. (forthcoming), ‘European Identity: From the World of Ideas to That of Political Organisations’, in I. Semenenko (ed.), Russian Identity Encyclopaedia (Moscow).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • David, M. and T. Romanova (2015), ‘Modernisation in EU–Russian Relations: Past, Present, and Future’, European Politics and Society 16, no. 1: 110.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Della Sala, V. (2010), ‘Political Myth, Mythology and the European Union’, Journal of Common Market Studies 6, no. 1: 119.

  • Delegation of the European Union to Russia (2016), ‘Political Relations’, <http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/russia/eu_russia/political_relations/index_en.htm> (accessed 17 February 2017).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deriglazova, L. (2015a), ‘Prioritety Vneshnej Politiki Rossii: Ocenki I Ozhidaniya Molodyh Mezhdunarodnikov Tomska, 2012’, Sibirskie Istoricheskie Issledovaniya 2015, no. 3: 6386.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deriglazova, L. (2015b), ‘“Chto Znachit Byt’ Russkim?” v Otvetah Studentov, Izuchayushchih Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniya v TGU, 2006 i 2014 Gg.’, in Chelovek v Menyayushchemsya Mire: Problemy Identichnosti i Social’noj Adaptacii v Istorii i Sovremennosti (Tomsk: Izd-vo Tom. un-ta).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ECHR (2016), ‘Press Country Profile: Russia’ <http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/CP_Russia_ENG.pdf> (accessed February 2017).

  • Entin, M. (2006), V poiskah partnerskih otnoshenij: Rossiya i Evropejskij soyuz v 2004–2005 godah (SPb: Rossiya-Neva).

  • European Citizenship: Standard Eurobarometer no. 81 (Spring 2014).

  • European Union Citizenship: Flash Eurobarometer no. 430 (March 2016).

  • EU–Russia Common Spaces Progress Report 2012 (2013), <http://eeas.europa.eu/russia/docs/commonspaces_prog_report_2012_en.pdf> (accessed 26 August 2016).

  • Gudkov, L. (2015), ‘Rossiyane razlyubili Evropu’, Novaya gazeta no. 134, 4 December <http://www.novayagazeta.ru/politics/70997.html> (accessed 10 February 2017).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gudkov, L., B. Dubin and N. Zorkaja (2011), ‘Ot’ezd iz Rossii Kak Social’nyi Diagnoz i Zhiznennaya Perspectiva’, Vestnik Obsheshchstvennogo mneniya. Dannye. Analiz. Discussii 4, no. 100: 4680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gulyaeva, O. (2013), ‘Russian Vision of the EU in Its Interactions with the Neighbourhood’, Baltic Journal of European Studies 3, no. 3: 175194.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Headley, J. (2012), ‘Is Russia Out of Step with European Norms? Assessing Russia’s Relationship to European Identity, Values and Norms Through the Issue of Self-Determination’, Europe-Asia Studies 64, no. 3: 427447.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haukkala, H. (2015), ‘From Cooperative to Contested Europe? The Conflict in Ukraine as a Culmination of a Long-term Crisis in EU–Russia Relations’, Journal of Contemporary European Studies 22, no. 1: 2540.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kakimi Stanut Vnutrennie i Vneshnie Politiki ES v Rezul’tate Vstupleniya v Silu Lissabonskogo Dogovora (Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj Konferencii, Provedennoj v MGIMO [U] MID Rossii 22 fevralya 2008 g.) (2008), (Moskva: Aksiom).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kockel, U. (2010), Re-visioning Europe: Frontiers, Place Identities and Journeys in Debatable Lands (London: Palgrave Macmillan).

  • Kotkin, S. (2016), ‘Russia’s Perpetual Geopolitics: Putin Returns to the Historical Pattern’, Foreign Affairs, May/June <https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/ukraine/2016-04-18/russias-perpetual-geopolitics> (accessed 10 February 2017).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kratochvíl, P. (2008), ‘The Discursive Resistance to EU-Enticement: The Russian Elite and (The Lack of) Europeanisation’, Europe-Asia Studies 60, no. 3: 397422.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levada Center (2005), Press-vypusk, Social’no-politicheskaya situaziya v Rossii v aprele 2005 goda’, <http://www.levada.ru/old/04-05-2005/sotsialno-politicheskaya-situatsiya-v-rossii-v-aprele-2005-goda> (accessed 10 February 2017).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levada Center (2015), Press-vypusk, Zapad: vospriiatie i zhelanie emigrirovat, 13 October <http://www.levada.ru/2015/10/13/zapad-vospriyatie-i-stremlenie-emigrirovat> (accessed 24 August 2016).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levada Center (2016), Press-vypusk Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 29 November 2016 <http://www.levada.ru/2016/11/29/mezhdunarodnye-otnosheniya-4/>

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marquand, J. (2009), Development Aid in Russia: Lessons from Siberia (London: Palgrave Macmillan).

  • Morozov, V. (2008), ‘Europe: Self-alignment in Time and Space’, Russia in Global Affairs, no. 3 <http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/number/n_11285> (accessed 30 July 2016).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muižnieks, N. (2013), Report of Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, Following His Visit to the Russian Federation, from 3 to 13 April 2013, CommDH 21, November, Council of Europe <https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?p=&id=2113397&direct=true> (accessed 26 Aug 2016)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obsctestvennoe mnenie 2015: Ezhegodnik (2016) (Moscow: Levada Center).

  • Otchet po Rezultatam Sociologicheskogo IssledovaniyaVneshnyaya Politika Rossii: Ocenki I Ozhidaniya Molodogo Pokoleniya’: Issledovanie Vypolnenoe v Sootvetstvii s Dogovorom FG/4-102 (2012), (Moscow, unpublished report).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Public Opinion in the EU, First results. Standard Eurobarometr 86. (Autumn 2016) <https://ec.europa.eu/COMMFrontOffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/ResultDoc/download/DocumentKy/76422> (accessed 15 December 2016).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petuhov, V. V. (2012), ‘Evolyuciya Predstavlenij Rossiyan O Demokratii: Ot Mechty Do Zaprosa Na Rabotayushchie Instituty’, Rossiya Reformiruyushchayasya 11 (Moscow: Novyj hronograf).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piontkovsky, A. (2006), East or West? Russia’s Identity Crisis in Foreign Policy (London: The Foreign Policy Centre).<http://fpc.org.uk/fsblob/681.pdf> (accessed 26 December 2016).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • The Promise of the EU: Qualitative Survey: Aggregate Report (September 2014). <http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/quali/ql_6437_en.pdf> (accessed 14 September 2015).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sakwa, R. (2015), ‘The Ukraine Crisis and the Crisis of Europe’, Sibirskie Istoricheskie Issledovaniya no. 3: 839.

  • Semenenko, I. (2013), ‘The Quest for Identity: Russian Public Opinion on Europe and the European Union and the National Identity Agenda’, Perspectives on European Politics and Society 14, no. 1: 102122.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strategiya Razvitiya Otnoshenij Rossijskoj Federacii s Evropejskim Soyuzom na Srednesrochnuyu Perspektivu (20002010 gg.) <http://docs.cntd.ru/document/901773061> (accessed 10 February 2017).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Torkunov, A. (2006), ‘Rossijskaya model’ demokratii i sovremennoe global’noe upravlenie’, Mezhdunarodnye processy 4, no. 1: 2129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tumanov, S., A. Gasparishvilii and E. Romanova (2011), ‘Russia–EU Relations, or How the Russians Really View the EU’, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 27, no. 1: 120141.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vodichev, E. G. (2014), ‘Sotrudnichestvo Rossii i Evropejskogo Soyuza v Oblasti Nauki, Tekhnologij i Vysshego Obrazovaniya’, in S. Yun (ed.), Rossiya i Evropejskij Soyuz: Uchebnoe Posobie (Tomsk: Izdatel’stvo TGU), 121141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WCIOM (2004), Press-vypusk no. 70, Rossiya-Evropa: V Predverii Sammita v Irlandii <http://wciom.ru/index.php?id=236&uid=637> (accessed 26 August 2016)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 362 215 12
Full Text Views 137 5 0
PDF Downloads 9 6 0