Des dromadaires et des hommes au Moyen-Orient

Identité et modernité

in Anthropology of the Middle East
Restricted access

Abstract

Regarded as an animal of the past and supporting the eternal image of the ‘ship of the desert’, the dromedary camel is facing deep changes in its rearing system, causing significant changes in human relationships. A somewhat idealized virtuous animal among the nomad with which it shares the rough life of deserts, it becomes only one cog in the intensification process of settled production systems where it needs to better express its potential of production to avoid the risk of being marginalized, its utilitarian function becoming predominant. However, the urbanized Middle East likes to remember the virtues of the animal and its products, the dromedary returning this animal idealized for a weekend where the city dweller looking over its lost emotional proximity, rather than the economic benefits of its products.

Contributor Notes

Bernard Faye is a French veterinarian (Lyon University), PhD (Paris 12 University and HDR, Montpellier University), scientific project manager at CIRAD-Montpellier, international camel expert for FAO and OIE. He has more than 35 years of experience in camel farming, production and biology in more than 30 ‘camel countries’ in Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. He has been an FAO consultant for the past five years in Saudi Arabian camel project. He is author of more than 500 scientific papers and communications, 15 books and 24 chapters. He is the founder of the International Society of Camelid Research and Development (ISOCARD). E-mail: faye@cirad.fr

  • AbdallahH. R. and FayeB. (2013) ‘Typology of Camel Farming System in Saudi ArabiaEmirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 25 no 4: 250260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Al-JassimR. and Al-AniA. H. (2015) ‘Did Prophet Muhammad Advise his Followers to Drink Camel Urine?’ in Proc. of 4th Conference of ISOCARD ‘Silk Road Camel: The Camelids Main Stakes For Sustainable Development’812 June 2015AlmatyKazakhstanKonuspayeva G. (ed.) Special Issue of Scientific and Practical Journal Veterinariya #2 (42) 2015 poster presentation 460461.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AtiguiM.HammadiM.BarmatA.FarahatM.KhorchaniT. and MarnetP. G. (2014) ‘First Description of Milk Flow Traits in Tunisian Dairy Dromedary Camels under an Intensive Farming SystemJournal of Dairy Research83: 1182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AyadiM.AljumaahR. S.MusaadA.SamaraE. M.AbdelrahmanM. M.AlshaikhM. A.SalehS. K. and FayeB. (2013) ‘Relationship between Udder Morphology Traits, Alveolar and Cisternal Milk Compartments and Machine Milking Performances of Dairy Camels (Camelus dromedarius)Spanish Journal of Agriculture Research11: 790797.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BenardC.FayeB.MoulinC. H. and Kohler-RollefsonI. (2008) ‘A Typology of the Camel Keepers in the Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, IndiaJournal of Camel Practice and Research 15 no 2: 231238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BengoumiM. and FayeB. (2015) ‘Camel Economy: from Local to International Market’ in Proc. of 4th Conference of ISOCARD ‘Silk Road Camel: The Camelids Main Stakes For Sustainable Development’8–12 June 2015 AlmatyKazakhstanKonuspayeva G. (ed.) Special Issue of Scientific and Practical Journal Veterinariya #2 (42) 2015 Key-note presentation8186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BreulmannM.BoerB.WerneryU.WerneryR.El-ShaerH.AlhadramiG.GallacherD.PeacockJ.ChaudharyS. A.BrownG. and NortonJ. (2007) ‘The Camel, From Tradition to Modern TimesUNESCO Doha Publ.Doha (Qatar).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CabalionS. (2013) ‘Le « système domesticatoire » touareg (Tagaraygarayt, Niger)’ vols. 1 et 2 (Thèse en anthropologie sociale et ethnologie, EHESSParis).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChehmaA.FayeB. and DjebarM. R. (2008) ‘Productivité fourragère et capacité de charge des parcours camélins du Sahara septentrional algérienSécheresse 19: 115121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CorreraA.LefeuvreJ. C. and FayeB. (2009) ‘Organisation spatiale et stratégie d’adaptation des nomades du Parc National du Banc d’Arguin à la sécheresseSècheresse 19 no 4: 245251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CourJ. M. (2001) ‘The Sahel in West Africa: Countries in Transition to a Full Market EconomyGlobal Environment Change 11: 3147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De PuigaudeauO. (1936) Le Sel du Désert (Paris: Plon).

  • FarhiA. (2002) ‘Biskra: de l’oasis à la ville saharienne’ (Note) in Méditerranée- Le Sahara cette «autre Méditerranée» (ed.) F. Braudel99 (3–4): 7782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FayeB. (2009) ‘L’élevage des grands camélidés: vers un changement de paradigmeRencontres Recherches Ruminants 16: 345348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FayeB. (2011) ‘Combating Desertification: The Added Value of the Camel FarmingAnnals of Arid Zone 50 no 34: 111.

  • FayeB. (2013) ‘Camel Farming Sustainability: The Challenges of the Camel Farming System in the XXIth CenturyJournal of Sustainable Development 6 no 12: 7482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FayeB. and BreyF. (2005) ‘Les relations entre chameaux et société: entre marginalisation et idéalisationRevue Ethnozootechnie 77: 4350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FayeB.ChaibouM. and ViasG. (2012) ‘Integrated Impact of Climate Change and Socioeconomic Development on the Evolution of Camel Farming SystemsBritish Journal of Environment and Climatic Change 2 no 3: 227244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FayeB.MadaniH. and El-RouiliA. H. (2014) ‘Camel Milk Value Chain in Northern Saudi ArabiaEmirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 26 no 4: 359365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FreyP. (1992) Nomade blanc: Le Sahara d’est en ouest en solitaire (Paris: Robert Laffont).

  • GérardD. (1985) ‘The Harnassed Camel: A Promising Trial in a Semi-arid Pastoral AreaSEDOC newsletter 13Addis-Abeba (Ethiopie).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HemidaM. G.ElmoslemanyA.Al-HizabF.AlnaeemA.AlmathenF.FayeB.ChuD. K.W.PereraR.A.P.M. and PeirisM. (2015) ‘Dromedary Camels and the Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (sous presse).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KadimI.MahgoubO. and PurchasR. W. (2008) ‘A Review of the Growth, and of the Carcass and Meat Quality Characteristics of the One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedaries)Meat Sciences 80: 555569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KonuspayevaG.LoiseauG. and FayeB. (2004) ‘La plus-value « santé » du lait de chamelle cru et fermenté: l’expérience du KazakhstanRencontres Recherches Ruminants 11: 4750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LawrenceT. E. (1922) The Seven Pillars of Wisdom (Private editionUK).

  • MonodT. (1939) Méharées exploration au vrai Sahara (Paris: Je Sers, réédition Actes Sud, Coll. Babel1989).

  • MonodT. (1992) ‘Du désertSécheresse 3: 724.

  • MorinD. (2006) Le Chameau afar entre éthique et diététique in L’Homme et l’animal dans l’Est de l’Afrique (BièvresFrance: Ed. Les Ethiopisants Associés [LEA]) 93105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MullaicharamA. R. (2014) ‘A Review on Medicinal Properties of Camel Milk (2014)World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2 no 3: 237242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NagyP. and JuhaszJ. (2015) ‘Present Knowledge and Future Questions Regarding Intensive Camel Milk Production’, in Proc. of 4th Conference of ISOCARD, ‘Silk Road Camel: The Camelids, Main Stakes for Sustainable Development’ 8–12 June 2015 AlmatyKazakhstanKonuspayeva G. (ed.) Special Issue of Scientific and Practical Journal Veterinariya #2 (42) 2015 Key-note presentation5157.

    • Export Citation
  • PrattA. N.BonnetP.JabbaM.EhuiS. and de HaanC. (2005) ‘Benefits and Costs of Compliance of Sanitary Regulations in Livestock Markets: the Case of Rift Valley Fever in the Somali Region of EthiopiaReport International Livestock Research Institute Nairobi Kenya The World Bank.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RaiymbekG.KadimI.KonuspayevaG.MahgoubO.SerikbayevaA. and FayeB. (2015) ‘Discriminant Amino-acid Components of Bactrian (Camelus bactrianus) and Dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) MeatJournal of Food composition and analyses 41: 194200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RutagwendaT.Lechner-DollM.SchwartzH.J.SchultkaW. and Von EngelhardtW. (1990) ‘Dietary Preference and Degrability of Forage on a Semi-arid Thornbush Savannah Indigenous Ruminants, Camels and DonkeysAnimal Feed Sciences and Technology 35: 179192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SaalfeldW. K. and EdwardG. P. (2010) ‘Distribution and Abundance of the Feral Camel (Camelus dromedarius) in AustraliaThe Rangeland Journal 32: 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SkidmoreJ. (2005) ‘Reproduction in Dromedary Camels: an UpdateAnimal Reproduction 2 no 3: 161171.

  • StilesN. (1988) ‘Le dromadaire contre l’avancée du désertLa Recherche 201: 948952.

  • ThesingerW. (1999) Le Desert des deserts (Paris: Plon, Coll. Terre Humaine).

  • TibaryA. and AnouassiA. (1997) Theriogenology in Camelidae: Anatomy Physiology Pathology and Artificial Breeding (Rabat: Actes Editions Publ.).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ViasG.PacholekX.DaoudaH. and FayeB. (2002) ‘Camel Traction in Niger: Between Tradition and Modernity’. Proc. of 53th EAAP-FEZ meeting: ‘Working Animals in Agriculture and TransportCairo (Egypt) 1–4 September 2002EEAP Technical series n°6201207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WerneryU.JuhaszJ. and NagyP. (2004) ‘Milk Yield Performance of Dromedaries with an Automatic Bucket Milking MachineJournal of Camel Practice and Research 11: 5157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 24 24 24
PDF Downloads 12 12 12