Des dromadaires et des hommes au Moyen-Orient

Identité et modernité

in Anthropology of the Middle East
View More View Less
  • 1 CIRAD-Montpellier faye@cirad.fr
Restricted access

Abstract

Regarded as an animal of the past and supporting the eternal image of the ‘ship of the desert’, the dromedary camel is facing deep changes in its rearing system, causing significant changes in human relationships. A somewhat idealized virtuous animal among the nomad with which it shares the rough life of deserts, it becomes only one cog in the intensification process of settled production systems where it needs to better express its potential of production to avoid the risk of being marginalized, its utilitarian function becoming predominant. However, the urbanized Middle East likes to remember the virtues of the animal and its products, the dromedary returning this animal idealized for a weekend where the city dweller looking over its lost emotional proximity, rather than the economic benefits of its products.

Contributor Notes

Bernard Faye is a French veterinarian (Lyon University), PhD (Paris 12 University and HDR, Montpellier University), scientific project manager at CIRAD-Montpellier, international camel expert for FAO and OIE. He has more than 35 years of experience in camel farming, production and biology in more than 30 ‘camel countries’ in Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. He has been an FAO consultant for the past five years in Saudi Arabian camel project. He is author of more than 500 scientific papers and communications, 15 books and 24 chapters. He is the founder of the International Society of Camelid Research and Development (ISOCARD). E-mail: faye@cirad.fr

  • Abdallah, H. R. and Faye, B. (2013), ‘Typology of Camel Farming System in Saudi Arabia’, Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 25, no 4: 250260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Al-Jassim, R. and Al-Ani, A. H. (2015), ‘Did Prophet Muhammad Advise his Followers to Drink Camel Urine?’, in Proc. of 4th Conference of ISOCARD, ‘Silk Road Camel: The Camelids, Main Stakes For Sustainable Development’, 812 June 2015, Almaty, Kazakhstan, Konuspayeva G. (ed.), Special Issue of Scientific and Practical Journal Veterinariya #2 (42) 2015, poster presentation, 460461.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atigui, M., Hammadi, M., Barmat, A., Farahat, M., Khorchani, T. and Marnet, P. G. (2014), ‘First Description of Milk Flow Traits in Tunisian Dairy Dromedary Camels under an Intensive Farming System’, Journal of Dairy Research, 83: 1182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ayadi, M., Aljumaah, R. S., Musaad, A., Samara, E. M., Abdelrahman, M. M., Alshaikh, M. A., Saleh, S. K. and Faye, B. (2013), ‘Relationship between Udder Morphology Traits, Alveolar and Cisternal Milk Compartments and Machine Milking Performances of Dairy Camels (Camelus dromedarius)’, Spanish Journal of Agriculture Research, 11: 790797.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benard, C., Faye, B., Moulin, C. H. and Kohler-Rollefson, I. (2008), ‘A Typology of the Camel Keepers in the Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India’, Journal of Camel Practice and Research 15, no 2: 231238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bengoumi, M. and Faye, B. (2015), ‘Camel Economy: from Local to International Market’, in Proc. of 4th Conference of ISOCARD, ‘Silk Road Camel: The Camelids, Main Stakes For Sustainable Development’, 8–12 June 2015 Almaty, Kazakhstan, Konuspayeva G. (ed.), Special Issue of Scientific and Practical Journal Veterinariya #2 (42) 2015, Key-note presentation, 8186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Breulmann, M., Boer, B., Wernery, U., Wernery, R., El-Shaer, H., Alhadrami, G., Gallacher, D., Peacock, J., Chaudhary, S. A., Brown, G. and Norton, J. (2007), ‘The Camel, From Tradition to Modern Times’, UNESCO Doha Publ., Doha (Qatar).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cabalion, S. (2013), ‘Le « système domesticatoire » touareg (Tagaraygarayt, Niger)’, vols. 1 et 2 (Thèse en anthropologie sociale et ethnologie, EHESS, Paris).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chehma, A., Faye, B. and Djebar, M. R. (2008), ‘Productivité fourragère et capacité de charge des parcours camélins du Sahara septentrional algérien’, Sécheresse 19: 115121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Correra, A., Lefeuvre, J. C. and Faye, B. (2009), ‘Organisation spatiale et stratégie d’adaptation des nomades du Parc National du Banc d’Arguin à la sécheresse’, Sècheresse 19, no 4: 245251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cour, J. M. (2001), ‘The Sahel in West Africa: Countries in Transition to a Full Market Economy’, Global Environment Change 11: 3147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Puigaudeau, O. (1936), Le Sel du Désert (Paris: Plon).

  • Farhi, A. (2002), ‘Biskra: de l’oasis à la ville saharienne’ (Note), in Méditerranée- Le Sahara, cette «autre Méditerranée», (ed.) F. Braudel, 99 (3–4): 7782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faye, B. (2009), ‘L’élevage des grands camélidés: vers un changement de paradigme’, Rencontres Recherches Ruminants 16: 345348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faye, B. (2011), ‘Combating Desertification: The Added Value of the Camel Farming’, Annals of Arid Zone 50, no 34: 111.

  • Faye, B. (2013), ‘Camel Farming Sustainability: The Challenges of the Camel Farming System in the XXIth Century’, Journal of Sustainable Development 6, no 12: 7482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faye, B. and Brey, F. (2005), ‘Les relations entre chameaux et société: entre marginalisation et idéalisation’, Revue Ethnozootechnie 77: 4350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faye, B., Chaibou, M. and Vias, G. (2012), ‘Integrated Impact of Climate Change and Socioeconomic Development on the Evolution of Camel Farming Systems’, British Journal of Environment and Climatic Change 2, no 3: 227244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faye, B., Madani, H. and El-Rouili, A. H. (2014), ‘Camel Milk Value Chain in Northern Saudi Arabia’, Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 26, no 4: 359365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frey, P. (1992), Nomade blanc: Le Sahara d’est en ouest en solitaire (Paris: Robert Laffont).

  • Gérard, D. (1985), ‘The Harnassed Camel: A Promising Trial in a Semi-arid Pastoral Area’, SEDOC newsletter, 13, Addis-Abeba (Ethiopie).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hemida, M. G., Elmoslemany, A., Al-Hizab, F., Alnaeem, A., Almathen, F., Faye, B., Chu, D. K.W., Perera, R.A.P.M. and Peiris, M. (2015), ‘Dromedary Camels and the Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)’, Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (sous presse).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kadim, I., Mahgoub, O. and Purchas, R. W. (2008), ‘A Review of the Growth, and of the Carcass and Meat Quality Characteristics of the One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedaries)’, Meat Sciences 80: 555569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Konuspayeva, G., Loiseau, G. and Faye, B. (2004), ‘La plus-value « santé » du lait de chamelle cru et fermenté: l’expérience du Kazakhstan’, Rencontres Recherches Ruminants 11: 4750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawrence, T. E. (1922), The Seven Pillars of Wisdom (Private edition, UK).

  • Monod, T. (1939), Méharées, exploration au vrai Sahara (Paris: Je Sers, réédition Actes Sud, Coll. Babel, 1989).

  • Monod, T. (1992), ‘Du désert’, Sécheresse 3: 724.

  • Morin, D. (2006), Le Chameau afar entre éthique et diététique, in L’Homme et l’animal dans l’Est de l’Afrique (Bièvres, France: Ed. Les Ethiopisants Associés [LEA]), 93105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mullaicharam, A. R. (2014), ‘A Review on Medicinal Properties of Camel Milk (2014)’, World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2, no 3: 237242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nagy, P., and Juhasz, J. (2015), ‘Present Knowledge and Future Questions Regarding Intensive Camel Milk Production’, in Proc. of 4th Conference of ISOCARD, ‘Silk Road Camel: The Camelids, Main Stakes for Sustainable Development’, 8–12 June 2015 Almaty, Kazakhstan, Konuspayeva G. (ed.), Special Issue of Scientific and Practical Journal Veterinariya #2 (42) 2015, Key-note presentation, 5157.

    • Export Citation
  • Pratt, A. N., Bonnet, P., Jabba, M., Ehui, S. and de Haan, C. (2005), ‘Benefits and Costs of Compliance of Sanitary Regulations in Livestock Markets: the Case of Rift Valley Fever in the Somali Region of Ethiopia’, Report International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, The World Bank.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raiymbek, G., Kadim, I., Konuspayeva, G., Mahgoub, O., Serikbayeva, A. and Faye, B. (2015), ‘Discriminant Amino-acid Components of Bactrian (Camelus bactrianus) and Dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) Meat’, Journal of Food composition and analyses 41: 194200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rutagwenda, T., Lechner-Doll, M., Schwartz, H.J., Schultka, W. and Von Engelhardt, W. (1990), ‘Dietary Preference and Degrability of Forage on a Semi-arid Thornbush Savannah Indigenous Ruminants, Camels and Donkeys’, Animal Feed Sciences and Technology 35: 179192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saalfeld, W. K. and Edward, G. P. (2010), ‘Distribution and Abundance of the Feral Camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Australia’, The Rangeland Journal 32: 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skidmore, J. (2005), ‘Reproduction in Dromedary Camels: an Update’, Animal Reproduction 2, no 3: 161171.

  • Stiles, N. (1988), ‘Le dromadaire contre l’avancée du désert’, La Recherche 201: 948952.

  • Thesinger, W. (1999), Le Desert des deserts (Paris: Plon, Coll. Terre Humaine).

  • Tibary, A. and Anouassi, A. (1997), Theriogenology in Camelidae: Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology and Artificial Breeding (Rabat: Actes Editions Publ.).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vias, G., Pacholek, X., Daouda, H. and Faye, B. (2002), ‘Camel Traction in Niger: Between Tradition and Modernity’. Proc. of 53th EAAP-FEZ meeting: ‘Working Animals in Agriculture and Transport’, Cairo (Egypt), 1–4 September 2002, EEAP Technical series n°6, 201207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wernery, U., Juhasz, J. and Nagy, P. (2004), ‘Milk Yield Performance of Dromedaries with an Automatic Bucket Milking Machine’, Journal of Camel Practice and Research 11: 5157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 57 57 5
Full Text Views 26 26 0
PDF Downloads 12 12 0