Kinship Systems of Xoja Groups in Southern Kazakhstan

in Anthropology of the Middle East
View More View Less
  • 1 Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan azim_malikov@yahoo.com
Restricted access

Abstract

The Kazakhs, Turkmens, Tajiks, Uyghurs and Uzbeks in Central Asia share some distinct religious elite groups – Xojas – some lineages of which appear in two or more of them. The Xoja group is a patrilineage, which traces kinship through blood relationships. Endogamous marriages prevail among the Uzbek-speaking Xoja contrary to descendants of nomadic, Kazakh-speaking Xojas. In this article I compare the kinship systems of the Uzbek-speaking Xoja of the Uzbek people and the Kazakh-speaking Xoja of the Kazakh people and analyse their transformation in the twentieth century. The analysis shows that interpretation of differences in kinship terminology is situational: in some cases it is interpreted as an example of adaptation to different cultures, and in other instances it may serve as a symbol of belonging.

Contributor Notes

Azim Malikov is a Senior Research Fellow in the Department of Anthropology and Ethnology at the Institute of the History of Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. From 2010 to 2013, he was Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Integration and Conflict at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, where he became a member of the working group on Central Asia. His research interests focus on ethnicity and identity, social and cultural transformations of society in Central Asia, the history of Samarqand, Islamic shrines and sacred lineages in Central Asia. E-mail: azim_malikov@yahoo.com

  • Alpysbes, M. A. (2013), Shejire kazakhov: istocniki i traditsii (uchebnik dlya vuzovskikh i poslevuzovskikh spetskursov) (Astana: IP BG-Print).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke, P. (2003), ‘Relationships among Multiple Identities’, in Advances in Identity Theory and Research, (ed.) P. J. Burke, T. J. Owens, R. Serpe, and P. Thoits (New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers), 195216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeWeese, D. (1999), ‘The Politics of Sacred Lineages in 19th Century Central Asia: Descent Groups Linked to Khwaja Ahmad Yasavi in Shrine Documents and Genealogical Charters’, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 31, no. 4: 507530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donahoe, B., Eidson, J., Feyissa, D., Fuest, V., Hoehne, M. V., Nieswand, B., Schlee, G. and Zenker, O. (2009), The Formation and Mobilization of Collective Identities in Situations of Conflict and Integration, Working Paper no. 116 (Halle/Saale: Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Esenova, S. (1998), ‘“Tribalism” and Identity in Contemporary Circumstances: The Case of Kazakstan’, Central Asian Survey 17, no. 3: 443462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fortes, M. [1969] (2006), Kinship and the Social Order: The Legacy of Lewis Henry Morgan (Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers).

  • Fox, R. L. (1967), Kinship and Marriage: An Anthropological Perspective (Baltimore, MD: Penguin).

  • Holy, L. (1996), Anthropological Perspectives on Kinship (London: Pluto Press).

  • Ibadullaeva, Z. O. (2001), Qazaq khalkynyn kuramyndagy kozhalar (tarikhi-etnografik zertteu) (Almaty: Sh.Ualikhanov atindaghy Tarikh jane etnologiya instituti).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaxylykov, S. (2017), ‘The Northern Region and the Southern People: Migration Policies and Patterns in Kazakhstan’, CAP Papers no. 184 (Central Asia fellowship series).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalish, A. B. (2013), Semya i brak v sovremennom Kazakhstane (Almaty: Aris).

  • Kudaybergenova, A. and Bekbalak, Q. (2005), Ongtustik Qazaqstan qazaqtarining edet-ghurpi men salt-destur erekshelikteri in Qazaq khalqining desturleri men edet-ghuriptari. 1-tom. Jauapti redaktori S.E.Edjigali (Almati: Aris).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malikov, A. (2013), ‘Khoja in Kazakhstan: Identity Transformations’, in Framing the Research, Initial Projects, (ed.) P. Finke and G. Schlee, ‘Integration and Conflict’ Field Notes and Research Projects VI (Halle/Saale: Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology), 101107, https://www.eth.mpg.de/3374775/FN_Vol06_CASCA_web.pdf last accessed 06/23/2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marinin, S. (2015), ‘State Regulation of Religion in Kazakhstan: Reconsideration of Approaches’, Central Asian Security Policy Briefs no. 23 (Bishkek: OSCE Academy).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muldagaliyeva, A. A., Gumarova, S. B., Issabayeva, B. K. and Zhirenshina, K. A. (2015), ‘The Socio-cultural Functions of Kazakh Kinship Terms’, Asian Social Science 11, no. 16: 8087.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muminov, A. (1996), Veneration of Holy Sites of the Mid-Sirdarya Valley: Continuity and Transformation in Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia from the 18th to the Early 20th Centuries (Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag), 355367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muminov, A. and Jandarbek, Z. (2008), ‘Introduction’, in Islamization and Sacred Lineages in Central Asia: The Legacy of Ishaq Bab in Narrative and Genealogical Traditions, vol. 2 (Almaty: Dayk Press), 4050.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newby, G. (2002), A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam (Oxford: One World).

  • O’zbek xalq shevalari lug’ati (1971), Mas’ul muxarrir Sh.Sh. Shoabdurahmonov (Toshkent: Fan).

  • Parkin, R. (2013), ‘Relatedness as Transcendence: The Renewed Debate over the Significance of Kinship’, Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 5, no. 1: 126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Privratsky, B. G. (2004), ‘“Turkistan Belongs to the Qojas”: Local Knowledge of a Muslim Tradition in Devout Societies vs. Impious States? Transmitting Islamic Learning in Russia, Central Asia and China, through the 20th Century’, in Devout Societies vs. Impious States? Transmitting Islamic Learning in Russia, Central Asia and China, through the Twentieth Century (ed.) S. A. Dudoignon (Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag), 161212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Regioni Kazakhstana (2016), Regioni Kazakhstana v 2015 godu: Statisticheskiy ejegodnik (Astana: Ministerstvo natsionalnoi ekonomiki Respubliki Kazakhstan po statistike).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Religioznie Objedineniya (2013), Religioznie objedineniya v Kazakhstane: informatsionnij spavochnik (Astana: Nauchno-issledovatelskij i analiticheskij tsentr Agenststva Respubliki Kazakhstan po delam religiy).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schatz, E. (2000), ‘The Politics of Multiple Identities: Lineage and Ethnicity in Kazakhstan’, Europe-Asia Studies 52, no. 3: 489506, doi:10.1080/713663070.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schlee, G. (1994), Identities on the Move: Clanship and Pastoralism in Northern Kenya (Nairobi: Gideon S. Were Press).

  • Schneider, D. (1984), A Critique of the Study of Kinship (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press).

  • Stasevich I. V. (2009), Brak i semya u kazakhov v kontse XIX – nachale XXI v. // Tsentralnaya Aziya: traditsiya v usloviyakh peremen. Vipusk. 2 (Sank-Peterburg: MAE RAN).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Statïstïka komïteti (2016), ‘Chislennost naseleniya Respubliki Kazakhstan po otdelnim etnosam na nachalo 2016 goda’, http://www.stat.gov.kz/faces/wcnav_externalId/publBullS14-2016?_afrLoop=23974871073271787#%40%3F_afrLoop%3D23974871073271787%26_adf.ctrl-state%3D1a3lk27dc5_76.

    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 25 25 15
Full Text Views 17 17 0
PDF Downloads 3 3 0