Raewyn Connell and the Making of Masculinity Studies in South Africa

in Boyhood Studies
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Cape Town, South Africa robert.morrell@uct.ac.za
Restricted access

Abstract

The study of masculinity in South Africa scarcely existed in 1990. A minor interest in gender was focused on women and inequality. South Africa was emerging from four decades of apartheid. It was into this environment that Raewyn Connell's ideas were introduced, adopted and adapted. Raewyn herself made a number of trips to South Africa in the 1990s and 2000s and found a ready reception for her theories about masculinity. South Africa was in transition feeling its way from white minority rule and authoritarianism toward democracy and a commitment to ending poverty, inequality, racism, and the oppression of women. In this article, I describe how Raewyn's idea energized scholarship, created a new research interest in men and masculinity, and contributed to gender activism.

Contributor Notes

Robert Morrell has been researching issues of gender and masculinity since 1990. Among his works are From Boys to Gentlemen: Settler Masculinity in Colonial Natal, 1880–1920 (2001): Changing Men in Southern Africa (2001), with Linda Richter: Baba: Men and Fatherhood in South Africa (2006); and Towards Gender Equality? South African Schools during the HIV/AIDS Epidemic (with Debbie Epstein, Elaine Unterhalter, Deevia Bhana, and Relebohile Moletsane) (2009). He has recently authored, together with Fran Collyer, Raewyn Connell, and Joao Maia, Knowledge and Global Power: Making New Sciences in the South (2019). Email: Robert.morrell@uct.ac.za

Boyhood Studies

An Interdisciplinary Journal

  • Appolis, Patricia. 1998. “Workers as Fathers.” Agenda 37: 7881.

  • Campbell, Catherine. 1992. “Learning to Kill: Masculinity, the Family and Violence in Natal.” Journal of Southern African Studies 18 (3): 614628.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, Catherine. 2001. “’Going Underground and Going after Women’: Masculinity and HIV Transmission amongst Black Workers on the Gold Mines.” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, ed. Robert Morrell, 275286. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carton, Benedict. 2001. “Locusts fall from the sky: manhood and migrancy in KwaZulu.” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, ed. Robert Morrell, 129140. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chigwedere, Pride, G. R. Seage, S. Gruskin, T. H. Lee and M. Essex. 2008. “Estimating the Lost Benefits of Antiretroviral Drug Use in South Africa.” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 49 (4): 410415.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collyer, Fran, Raewyn Connell, Joao Maiam and Robert Morrell. 2019. Knowledge and Global Power: Making New Sciences in the South. Melbourne: Monash University Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Connell, Raewyn, and Florence Gould. 1967. Politics of the Extreme Right. Sydney: Sydney University Press.

  • Connell, Raewyn. 1995. Masculinities. Cambridge: Polity.

  • Connell, Raewyn. 2007. Southern Theory: The Global Dynamics of Knowledge in Social Science. Cambridge: Polity.

  • Denoon, Donald. 1983. Settler Capitalism: The Dynamics of Dependent Development in the Southern Hemisphere. New York: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dworkin, Shari, Abigail M. Hatcher, Chris Colvin, and Dean Peacock. 2013. “Impact of a Gender-Transformative HIV and Antiviolence Program on Gender Ideologies and Masculinities in Two Rural, South African Communities.” Men and Masculinities 16 (2): 181202. doi:10.1177/1097184X12469878

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Field, Sean. 2001. “Disappointed Men: Myths and Hybrid Identities in Windermere.” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, ed. Robert Morrell, 211224. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friedman, Michel. 1997. “Agenda. ‘A Labour Of Love’: Ten Years of Feminist Publishing in South Africa.” Agenda 34: 1728. doi:10.1080/10130950.1997.9675620.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaitskell, Debbie, Judy Kimble, Moira Maconachie, and Elaine Unterhalter. 1983. “Class, Race and Gender: Domestic Workers in South Africa.” Review of African Political Economy 27/28: 86107.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gasa, Nomboniso, ed. 2007. Women in South African History: They Remove Boulders and Cross Rivers. Cape Town: HSRC Press.

  • Gevisser, Mark, and Edwin Cameron, eds. 1994. Defiant Desire: Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa. Johannesburg: Ravan Press.

  • Hemson, Crispin. 2001. “Ukubekezela or Ukuzithemba: African Life Savers in Durban.” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, ed. Robert Morrell, 5773. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Human Rights Watch. 1995. Violence against Women in South Africa: The State Response to Domestic Violence and Rape. Washington, DC: Human Rights Watch.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hyslop, Jonathan. 2001. “Jandamarra, my greatgrandfather and the British Empire: Reflections on Colonial War, Family History and the Making of Men and Women.” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, ed. Robert Morrell, 141155. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Legassick, Martin. 1974. “South Africa: Capital Accumulation and Violence.” Economy and Society 3 (3): 253291.

  • Mandela, Nelson. 1995. Long Walk to Freedom. London: Abacus.

  • Mchunu, Mxolisi. 2007. “Culture Change, Zulu Masculinity and Intergenerational Conflict in the Context of Civil War in Pietermaritzburg.” In From Boys to Men: Social Constructions of Masculinity in Contemporary Society, ed. Tammy Shefer, Kopano Ratele, Anna Strebel, Nokuthula Shabalala, and Rosemarie Buikema, 225240. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrell, Robert, ed. 1998. “Masculinities in Southern Africa,”, special issue, Journal of Southern African Studies 24(4).

  • Morrell, Robert. 2001a. From Boys to Gentlemen. Pretoria: UNISA Press.

  • Morrell, Robert, ed. 2001b. Changing Men in Southern Africa. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

  • Morrell, Robert, and Lindsay Clowes. 2016. “The Growth of Gender Research in South Africa and Southern Theory,” Gender Questions 4 (1):118. doi:10.25159/2412-8457/1517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrell, Robert, Debbie Epstein, Elaine Unterhalter, Deevia Bhana, and Relebohile Moletsane. 2009. Towards Gender Equality? South African Schools during the HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Motsei, Mmatshilo. 2004. Hearing Visions, Seeing Voices. Johannesburg: Jacana.

  • Nkosi, Thulani. 1998. “Young Men Taking a Stand!Agenda 37: 3031.

  • Oyegun, Julie. 1998. “Working Masculinities back into Gender”, Agenda 37: 1323. : https://doi.org/10.1080/10130950.1998.9675684

  • Parenzee, Penny. 1998. “A Men and Women Project Confronts Abuse”, Agenda: 37: 3236. https://doi.org/10.1080/10130950.1998.9675687

  • Pattman, Rob. 2001. “’The Beer Drinkers Say I had a Nice Prostitute, but the Church Goers Talk about Things Spiritual’: Learning to be a Man at a Teachers College in Zimbabwe.” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, ed. Robert Morrell. 225238. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peacock, Dean. 2013. “South Africa's Sonke Gender Justice Network: Educating Men for Gender Equality.” Agenda 27 (1): 116. doi:10.1080/10130950.2013.808793.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ratele, Kopano. 2001. “Between ouens: everyday makings of black masculinity.” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, ed. Robert Morrell. 239253. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reid, Graeme, and Liz Walker, eds. 2005. Men Behaving Differently. Cape Town: Double Storey.

  • Shefer, Tamara, Jeff Hearn, and Kopano Ratele. 2015. “North–South Dialogues: Reflecting On Working Transnationally with Young Men, Masculinities and Gender Justice.” NORMA. International Journal for Masculinity Studies 10 (2): 164178. doi:10.1080/18902138.2015.1050864

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Onselen, Charles. 1992. “The Social and Economic Underpinnings of Paternalism and Violence on the Maize Farms of the South-Western Transvaal, 1900–1950.” Journal of Historical Sociology 5 (2): 127160. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6443.1992.tb00159.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wardrop, Joan. 2001. “’Simply the Best’: Soweto Flying Squad, Professional Masculinities and the Rejection of Machismo.” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, ed. Robert Morrell. 255270. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waetjen, Thembisa and Maré, Gerhard. 2001.”’Men amongst Men’: Masculinity and Zulu Nationalism in the 1980s.” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, ed. Robert Morrell. 195206. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wood, Kate and Jewkes, Rachel. 2001. “‘Dangerous’ love: reflections on violence among Xhosa township youth.” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, ed. Robert Morrell. 317336. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xaba, Thokozani. 2001. “Masculinity and its Malcontents: The Confrontation between ‘Struggle Masculinity’ and ‘Post-Struggle Masculinity’ (1990-1997).” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, ed. Robert Morrell. 105124. Pietermaritzburg/London: University of Natal Press/Zed Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 556 556 18
Full Text Views 34 34 0
PDF Downloads 47 47 0