Still Just Hegemonic After All These Years?

“Worst Thing S/He Thinks About Me” Predicts Attitudinal Risk Factors for High School Healthy Relationships Program

in Boyhood Studies
View More View Less
  • 1 Professor of Communication Studies and Director of the Women's Studies Program, Western Connecticut State University, USA jessica.eckstein@gmail.com
  • 2 Graduate, Western Connecticut State University, USA
Restricted access

Abstract

Men and boys are commonly viewed as perpetrators and/or facilitators of relational violence, but this biological essentializing oversimplifies “masculinity” as “bad.” Connell illustrated the complex roles of bodies, structural order maintenance, and “pupils as agents, school as setting” (Connell 2000: 161) in shaping masculinity processes. Our study examined these factors by examining how peer perceptions of gendered identity threats relate to beliefs negatively affecting power relations. Students (N = 87; n = 36 males, 51 females) from four classes at two high schools in Connecticut provided pre- and post-test data for a Sexual Violence Prevention Program. Results show unhealthy attitudes related to peer perceptions as a basis for violence scenarios. We discuss primary-prevention curricular implications by addressing masculinities as social relationships involved in adolescents facilitating healthy relational practices.

Contributor Notes

Jessica J. Eckstein (PhD, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) is Professor of Communication Studies and Director of the Women's Studies Program at Western Connecticut State University. With a research focus on interpersonal and relational communication for those dealing with stigma in varied forms, Dr. Eckstein's work has been published in many interdisciplinary academic journals and edited volumes and can be found at www.jessicaeckstein.com. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4532-9702. Email: jessica.eckstein@gmail.com

Erika Sabovik graduated with Honors in 2020 from Western Connecticut State University (WCSU), where she majored in Social Entrepreneurship. She most recently served as president of the WCSU Gender and Sexuality Alliance and was accepted to the Hancock Student Leadership Program. She continues her commitment to social justice issues with her work in the nonprofit sector serving LGBTQ+ rights and care organizations.

Boyhood Studies

An Interdisciplinary Journal

  • Asch, Solomon E. 1946. “Forming Impressions of Personality.” Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology 41: 258290. doi:10.1037/h0055756.

  • Austin, Erica W. 1995. “Reaching Young Audiences: Developmental Considerations in Designing Health Messages.” In Designing Health Messages, ed. Elizabeth Maibach and Roxanne Parrott, 114144. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Babarskiene, Jurgita, and Julija Gaiduk. 2018. “Implicit Theories of Marital Relationships: Grounded Theory of Socialization Influences.” Marriage & Family Review 54 (4): 313334. doi:10.1080/01494929.2017.1347547.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartholomaeus, Clare, and Anna Tarrant. 2016. “Masculinities at Margins of ‘Middle Adulthood’: What a Consideration of Young and Old Age Offers Masculinities Theorizing.” Men & Masculinities 19 (4): 351369. doi:10.1177/1097184x15588592.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baumgartner, Eric. 2020. “‘Why Do We Ask Them About Their Gender, If We Then Go on to Do Nothing with It?’: Constructions of Masculinity in Youth Justice in England and Wales.” Boyhood Studies 13 (1): 122. doi:10.3167/bhs.2020.130102.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berbary, Lisbeth A. 2012. “‘Don't Be a Whore, That's Not Ladylike’: Discursive Discipline and Sorority Women's Gendered Subjectivity.” Qualitative Inquiry 18 (7): 606625. doi:10.1177/1077800412450150.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bird, Sharon. 1996. “Welcome to the Men's Club: Homosociality & Maintenance of Hegemonic Masculinity.” Gender & Society 10 (2): 120132. doi:10.1177/089124396010002002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bridges, Tristan. 2019. “The Costs of Exclusionary Practices in Masculinities Studies.” Men & Masculinities 22 (1): 1633. doi:10.1177/1097184X18805547.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brush, Lisa D., and Elizabeth Miller. 2019. “Trouble in Paradigm: ‘Gender Transformative’ Programming in Violence Prevention.” Violence Against Women 25 (14): 16351656. doi:10.1177/1077801219872551.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butler, Judith. 2006. Gender Trouble (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.

  • Butler, Judith. 2011. Bodies That Matter (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

  • Connell, Raewyn. 1987. Gender and Power. Boston, MA: Allen and Unwin.

  • Connell, Raewyn. 2000. The Men and the Boys. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

  • Connell, Raewyn, and James W. Messerschmidt. 2005. “Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept.” Gender & Society 19 (6): 829859. doi:10.1177/0891243205278639.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crooks, Claire V., Peter Jaffe, Caely Dunlop, Amanda Kerry, and Deinera Exner-Cortens. 2019. “Preventing Gender-Based Violence Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Lessons from 25 Years of Program Development and Evaluation.” Violence Against Women 25 (1): 2955. doi:10.1177/1077801218815778.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Endendijk, Joyce, Anneloes L. van Baar, and Maja Deković. 2020. “He Is a Stud, She Is a Slut!: A Meta-Analysis on the Continued Existence of Sexual Double Standards.” Personality & Social Psychology Review 24 (2): 163190. doi:10.1177/1088868319891310.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Epstein, Marina, and L. Monique Ward. 2011. “Exploring Parent-Adolescent Communication About Gender.” Sex Roles 65: 108118. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9975-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Etcoff, Nancy L. 2000. Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty. New York: Anchor.

  • Fausto-Sterling, Anne. 2019. “Gender/Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Identity Are in the Body: How Did They Get There?Journal of Sex Research 56 (4–5): 529555. doi:10.1080/00224499.2019.1581883.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flood, Michael. 2011. “Involving Men in Efforts to End Violence Against Women.” Men & Masculinities 14 (3): 358377. doi:10.1177/1097184X10363995.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Francis, Becky, and Carrie Paechter. 2015. “The Problem of Gender Categorization.” Gender & Education 27 (7): 776790. doi:10.1080/09540253.2015.1092503.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaunt, Ruth. 2012. “Breadwinning Moms, Caregiving Dads: Double Standard in Social Judgments of Gender Norm Violators.” Journal of Family Issues 34 (1): 324. doi:10.1177/0192513x12438686.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glaser, Barney, and Anselm Strauss. 1967. Discovery of Grounded Theory. New York: Aldine.

  • Guendouzi, Jackie. 2001. “‘You'll Think We're Always Bitching’: Functions of Cooperativity and Competition in Women's Gossip.” Discourse Studies 3 (1): 2951. doi:10.1177/1461445601003001002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hertzog, Jodi L., and Rochelle Lynn Rowley. 2014. “My Beliefs of My Peers’ Beliefs: Exploring Gendered the Nature of Social Norms in Adolescent Romantic Relationships.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 29 (2): 348368. doi:10.1177/0886260513505145.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskin, Rhea A. 2019. “Femmephobia: The Role of Anti-Femininity and Gender Policing in LGBTQ+ People's Experiences of Discrimination.” Sex Roles 81: 686703. doi:10.1007/s11199-019-01021-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kretz, Valerie Ellen. 2019. “Television and Movie Viewing Predict Adults’ Romantic Ideals and Relationship Satisfaction.” Communication Studies 70 (2): 208234. doi:10.1080/10510974.2019.1595692.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McElhaney, Kathleen, Jill Antonishak, and Joseph Allen. 2008. “‘They Like Me, They Like Me Not’: Popularity & Adolescents’ Perceptions of Acceptance Predict Social Functioning Over Time.” Child Development 79 (3): 720731. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01153.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Messerschmidt, James W. 2012. “Engendering Gendered Knowledge: Assessing the Academic Appropriation of Hegemonic Masculinity.” Men & Masculinities 15 (1): 5676. doi:10.1177/1097184x11428384.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Messerschmidt, James W. 2019. “The Salience of ‘Hegemonic Masculinity’.” Men & Masculinities 22 (1): 8591. doi:10.1177/1097184X18805555.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morris, Edward W., and Kathleen Ratajczak. 2019. “Critical Masculinity Studies and Research on Violence Against Women.” Violence Against Women 25 (16): 19802006. doi:10.1177/1077801219875827.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murnen, Sarah K., Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. 2002. “If ‘Boys Will Be Boys,’ Then Girls Will Be Victims?: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression.” Sex Roles 46 (11/12): 359375. doi:10.1023/A:1020488928736.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schudson, Zach C., Melissa H. Manley, Lisa M. Diamond, and Sari M. van Anders. 2018. “Heterogeneity in Gender/Sex Sexualities.” Journal of Sex Research 55 (8): 10771085. doi:10.1080/00224499.2017.1402290.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sweeney, Brian. 2013. “Performance Anxieties: Undoing Sexist Masculinities Among College Men.” Culture, Society & Masculinities 5 (2): 208218. doi:10.3149/csm.0502.208.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szymanski, Dawn M., Renee Mikorski, and Trevor L. Dunn. 2019. “Predictors of Sexual Minority Men's Sexual Objectification of Other Men.” Journal of Social & Personal Relationships 36 (11–12): 36313650. doi:10.1177/0265407519832669.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warner, Judith. 2020. And Then They Stopped Talking to Me: Making Sense of Middle School. New York: Crown.

  • Weinstein, Eugene, and Paul Deutschberger. 1963. “Some Dimensions of Altercasting.” Sociometry 26 (4): 454466. doi:10.2307/2786148.

  • Westbrook, Laurel, and Aliya Saperstein. 2015. “New Categories Are Not Enough: Rethinking the Measurement of Sex and Gender in Social Surveys.” Gender & Society 29 (4): 534560. doi:10.1177/0891243215584758.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White House, The. 2014. Not Alone: First Report of the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. www.justice.gov/archives/ovw/page/file/905942/download

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wittig, Monique. 1980. “The Straight Mind.” Feminist Issues 1: 103111. doi:10.1007/BF02685561.

  • Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J., Haley J. Webb, Lara J. Farrell, and Allison M. Waters. 2018. “Girls’ and Boys’ Trajectories of Appearance Anxiety from Age 10 to 15 Years Are Associated with Earlier Maturation and Appearance-Related Teasing.” Development & Psychopathology 30 (1): 337350. doi:10.1017/S0954579417000657.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 458 458 48
Full Text Views 34 34 0
PDF Downloads 44 44 0