The Multiple Modes of Protesting Live Exports in Australia

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  • 1 Federation University, Ballarat, Australia
  • 2 Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia
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Signaling dissatisfaction with particular events, policies, or situations, modes of protest encompass individual expressions through to the development and mobilization of social movements. Indeed, protests can range from bodies blocking space and time to the aggregation of clicked signatures in an online petition and the sharing of campaign content through social media. All of these modes are currently employed within the Australian public sphere to bring about change or closure of the live export industry. This article analyzes the current dimensions and flows of public protest against Australia's live export industry, examining how they are shaped not only by a myriad of organizations but also by differing modes of protest, as well as by the different modes of appeal in use by activists to mobilize the Australian public sphere in protest. Through this discussion, insight is gained into some of the capacities and efficacies of multimodal protest and its significance for both public engagement and political and industry uptake.

Contributor Notes

Jane Mummery is a Senior Research Fellow in the School of Arts at Federation University in Ballarat, Australia. Email:

Debbie Rodan is an Associate Professor in the School of Arts and Humanities at Edith Cowan University in Perth, Australia. Email:


The Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Protest


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