Environmental Movement Interventions in Tourism and Energy Development in the North Atlantic

Connecting the Social Movement Societies and Players and Arenas Perspectives

in Contention
View More View Less
  • 1 Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
  • | 2 University of Bologna, Italy
  • | 3 Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Restricted access

Abstract

This article compares environmental movement engagement in energy and tourism development in Norway and Iceland by bridging the social movement societies (SMSoc) and the players and arenas perspectives. Results are based on field observation and interviews, as well as web-based textual analysis and a preliminary online survey. Results show that Norway is an institutionalized and multi-level social movement society with a mix of professionalized and grassroots local, national, and international organization. Iceland, by contrast, is a national and episodic social movement society where movement players operate at a national scale and engage in project-specific collaboration or opposition in tourism or energy development arenas. This analysis demonstrates the value of bridging the SMSoc and players and arenas perspectives for international comparative social movements research.

Contributor Notes

Mark C. J. Stoddart is professor in the department of sociology at Memorial University, with research interests in environmental sociology, social movements, and communications and culture. Prof. Stoddart's work has appeared in a wide range of international and Canadian journals focused on environmental social science and social movement studies, including: Social Movement Studies; Interface; Research in Social Movements, Conflict & Change; Energy Research & Social Science; Environmental Politics; Environmental Communication; Society & Natural Resources; and Politics and Governance. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5434-0161

Alice Mattoni is an associate professor in the department of political and social sciences at the University of Bologna. She works primarily in the fields of social movements, political communication, sociology of communication, and political sciences. Her monograph, Media Practices and Protest Politics: How Precarious Workers Mobilise, was published by Ashgate in 2012 and reprinted by Routledge in 2016. Her work has appeared in Social Movement Studies, Communication Theory, Information Communication & Society, Triple-C, Portal, Cultural Anthropology Online, Sociology Compass, Feminist Review, Working USA, and Participation and Conflict. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4809-0207

Elahe Nezhadhossein is a PhD graduate from the department of sociology at Memorial University, with research interests in social movements, gender, and media. Her research on women's participation in social movements appears in Good Governance and Sustainability (published in Farsi, 2010).

Contention

The Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Protest

  • Amenta, Edwin, Neal Caren, and Amber Celina Tierney. 2015. “Put Me in, Coach? Referee? Owner? Security? Why the News Media Rarely Cover Movements as Political Players.” In Players and Arenas: The Interactive Dynamics of Protest, ed. James M. Jasper and Jan Willem Duyvendak, 229250. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balsiger, Philip. 2015. “Corporations as Players and Arenas.” In Players and Arenas: The Interactive Dynamics of Protest, ed. James M. Jasper and Jan Willem Duyvendak, 120140. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beck, Ulrich. 2010. “Climate for Change, or How to Create a Green Modernity?” Theory, Culture & Society 27 (2–3): 254266. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276409358729.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryden, John. 2015. “The Development of Industry and North Sea Oil in Scotland and Norway.” In Northern Neighbours: Scotland and Norway since 1800, ed. John Bryden, Ottar Brox, and Lelsley Riddoch, 123153. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bulbeck, Chilla. 2005. Facing the Wild: Ecotourism, Conservation and Animal Encounters. London: Earthscan.

  • Carrier, James G., and Donald V. L. Macleod. 2005. “Bursting the Bubble: The Socio-Cultural Context of Ecotourism.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 11 (2): 315334. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9655.2005.00238.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castells, Manuel. 2012. Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

  • Corrigall-Brown, Catherine. 2012. Patterns of Protest: Trajectories of Participation in Social Movements. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dale, Brigt. 2016. “Governing Resources, Governing Mentalities: Petroleum and the Norwegian Integrated Ecosystem-based Management Plan for the Barents and Lofoten Seas in 2011.” The Extractive Industries and Society 3 (1): 916. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2015.10.002.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davidson, Debra J., and Mike Gismondi. 2011. Challenging Legitimacy at the Precipice of Energy Calamity. New York: Springer.

  • Diani, Mario. 2015. The Cement of Civil Society: Studying Networks in Localities. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Earl, Jennifer, and Katrina Kimport. 2009. “Movement Societies and Digital Protest: Fan Activism and Other Nonpolitical Protest Online.” Sociological Theory 27 (3): 220243. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9558.2009.01346.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giugni, Marco G., and Florence Passy. 1998. “Contentious Politics in Complex Societies: New Social Movements between Conflict and Cooperation.” In From Contention to Democracy, ed. Marco G. Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly, 81108. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gould, Kenneth A. 1999. “Tactical Tourism: A Comparative Analysis of Rainforest Development in Ecuador and Belize.” Organization & Environment 12 (3): 245262. https://doi.org/10.1177/1086026699123001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gould, Kenneth A. 2017. “Ecotourism under Pressure: The Political Economy of Oil Extraction and Cruise Ship Tourism Threats to Sustainable Development in Belize.” Environmental Sociology 3 (3): 237247. https://doi.org/10.1080/23251042.2017.1308238.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gurung, Dhan B., and Klaus Seeland. 2008. “Ecotourism in Bhutan: Extending its Benefits to Rural Communities.” Annals of Tourism Research 35 (2): 489508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2008.02.004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hallgrimsdottir, Helga K., and Emmanuel Brunet-Jailly. 2015. “Contentious Politics, Grassroots Mobilization and the IceSave Dispute: Why Iceland Did Not Play Nicely.” Acta Sociologica 58 (1): 7993. https://doi.org/10.1177/0001699314560614.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Han, Hahrie, and Dara Z. Strolovitch. 2015. “What the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street Illuminate about Bystander Publics as Proto-Players.” In Players and Arenas: The Interactive Dynamics of Protest, ed. James M. Jasper and Jan Willem Duyvendak, 275293. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy. 2010. Mixed Methods Research: Merging Theory with Practice. New York: The Guilford Press.

  • Huijbens, Edward. 2016. “Topological Encounters: Marketing Landscapes for Tourists.” In Tourism Encounters and Controversies: Ontological Politics of Tourism Development, ed. Gunnar Thór Jóhannesson, Carina Ren, and René van der Duim, 201218. London: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jasper, James M. 2015. “Playing the Game.” In Players and Arenas: The Interactive Dynamics of Protest, ed. James M. Jasper and Jan Willem Duyvendak, 932. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jasper, James M., and Jan W. Duyvendak, eds. (2015). Players and Arenas: The Interactive Dynamics of Protest. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kristoffersen, Berit, and Brigt Dale. 2014. “Post Petroleum Security in Lofoten: How Identity Matters.” Arctic Review on Law and Politics 5 (2): 201226. https://arcticreview.no/index.php/arctic/article/view/1046.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laudati, Ann. 2010. “Ecotourism: The Modern Predator? Implications of Gorilla Tourism on Local Livelihoods in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 28 (4): 726743. https://doi.org/10.1068/d15708.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lund, Katrín A., Kristín Loftsdóttir, and Michael Leonard. 2017. “More than a Stopover: Analysing the Postcolonial Image of Iceland as a Gateway Destination.” Tourist Studies 17 (2): 144163. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468797616659951.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, Dominique. 2015. “Institutionalization, State Funding, and Advocacy in the Quebec Women's Movement.” In Protest and Politics: The Promise of Social Movement Societies, ed. Howard Ramos and Kathleen Rodgers, 7997. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGarry, Aaiden, Robert J. Davidson, Guya Accornero, James M. Jasper, and Jan Willem. 2016. “Players and Arenas: Strategic Interactionism in Social Movements Studies.” Social Movement Studies 15 (6): 634642. https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2016.1199320.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McGehee, Nancy G. 2002. “Alternative Tourism and Social Movements.” Annals of Tourism Research 29 (1): 124143. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00027-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meletis, Zoe A., and Lisa M. Campbell. 2009. “Benevolent and Benign? Using Environmental Justice to Investigate Waste-Related Impacts of Ecotourism in Destination Communities.” Antipode 41 (4): 741780. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2009.00696.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyer, David S., and Sidney Tarrow. 1998. “A Movement Society: Contentious Politics for a New Century.” In The Social Movement Society: Contentious Politics for a New Century, ed. David S. Meyer and Sidney Tarrow, 128. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mische, Ann. 2015. “Fractal Arenas: Dilemmas of Style and Strategy in a Brazilian Student Congress.” In Players and Arenas: The Interactive Dynamics of Protest, ed. James M. Jasper and Jan Willem Duyvendak, 5578. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Polletta, Francesca, and Kelsy Kretschmer. 2015. “Movement Factions: Players and Processes.” In Players and Arenas: The Interactive Dynamics of Protest, ed. James M. Jasper and Jan Willem Duyvendak, 3554. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Quaranta, Mario. 2016. “Towards a Western European ‘Social Movement Society’? An Assessment: 1981–2009.” Partecipazione e Conflitto 9 (1): 233258. doi: 10.1285/i20356609v9i1p233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramos, Howard, and Kathleen Rodgers, eds. 2015. Protest and Politics: The Promise of Social Movement Societies. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ritchie, J. R. Brent, and Geoffrey I. Crouch. 2003. The Competitive Destination: A Sustainable Tourism Perspective. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rucht, Dieter, and Friedhelm Neidhardt. 2002. “Towards a ‘Movement Society’? On the Possibilities of Institutionalizing Social Movements.” Social Movement Studies 1 (1): 730. https://doi.org/10.1080/14742830120118873.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Small, Jennie, and Candice Harris. 2014. “Crying Babies on Planes: Aeromobility and Parenting.” Annals of Tourism Research 48: 2741. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2014.04.009.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soule, Sarah A., and Jennifer Earl. 2005. “A Movement Society Evaluated: Collective Protest in the United States, 1960–1986.” Mobilization 10 (3): 345364.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stoddart, Mark C. J. 2017. “Democratizing Environmental Governance.” In The Democracy Cookbook: Recipes to Renew Governance in Newfoundland and Labrador, ed. Alex Marland and Lisa Moore, 333336. St. John's, NL: ISER Books.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stoddart, Mark C. J., and Elahe Nezhadhossein. 2016. “Is Nature-Oriented Tourism a Pro-Environmental Practice? Examining Tourism–Environmentalism Alignments through Discourse Networks and Intersectoral Relationships.” The Sociological Quarterly 57 (3): 544568. https://doi.org/10.1111/tsq.12148.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stoddart, Mark C. J., Jillian Smith, and David B. Tindall. 2016. “Blame Canada: Environmental Movements, National Media and Canada's Reputation as a Climate Villain.” In A World to Win: Contemporary Social Movements and Counter-Hegemony, ed. William K. Carroll and Kanchan Sarker, 250266. Winnipeg, MB: ARP Books.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szerszynski, Bronislaw. 2007. “The Post-Ecologist Condition: Irony as Symptom and Cure.” Environmental Politics 16 (2): 337355. https://doi.org/10.1080/09644010701211965.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tarrow, Sidney. 2011. “Global, Conventional and Warring Movements and the Suppression of Contention: Themes in Contentious Politics Research.” Politica & Sociedad 10 (18): 2549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas-Muller, Clayton. 2014. “The Rise of the Native Rights-Based Strategic Framework: Our Last Best Hope to Save our Water, Air, and Earth.” In A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice, ed. Toban Black, Stephen D'Arcy, Tony Weiss, and Joshua K. Russell, 240252. Toronto, ON: Between the Lines.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Urry, John, and Jonas Larsen. 2011. The Tourist Gaze 3.0. Los Angeles: Sage.

  • Weinberg, Adam, Story Bellows, and Dara Ekster. 2002. “Sustaining Ecotourism: Insights and Implications from Two Successful Case Studies.” Society and Natural Resources 15 (4): 371380. https://doi.org/10.1080/089419202753570846.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Widener, Patricia. 2011. Oil Injustice: Resisting and Conceding a Pipeline in Ecuador. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 683 272 17
Full Text Views 84 62 2
PDF Downloads 107 68 2