This article complicates scholarship on Macbeth that understands political attachment in terms of an autonomous subject and attributes Macbeth's demise to an over-susceptibility to natural or supernatural forces. By putting early modern accounts of the humoral constitution of the night air in conversation with modern theories of apostrophe, I argue that the Macbeths’ experiences of night theorise political action as inseparable from the nonhuman forces in the play. Shakespeare reworks his source material to explore the borders of the human, imagining a more complex relationship between treasonous violence and the darkness that enshrouds Scotland.
Jeffrey B. Griswold is a PhD candidate studying Renaissance literature at the University of Maryland in the United States. His dissertation traces how Aristotle's claim that humans are the ‘political animal’ is refracted through early modern drama, poetry and philosophy. The project reassesses human exceptionalism circa 1600 through the lessons of posthumanism.