Commoning over time generates customs in common and therefore commonalities.
The political mobilizations of the past years may well be understood as
a form of urban commoning. However, while such mobilizations may sometimes
understand themselves as anticapitalist, one should resist the apparently logical
idea (1) that the use values off ered by an urban commons are inevitably the opposite
of surplus value, (2) that the urban commons will not just in theory but in
practice be “open for everyone,” (3) and that such commons are necessarily horizontalist
and universalist, as the Left might claim. Historical fascism and the rise
of the new Right in Europe and the United States show that there is an exclusivist
and hierarchical commons against the market too.