In her 1938 essay Three Guineas, Virginia Woolf questioned the meaning of
patriotism and national belonging for British women who, because of their
gender, were denied equal access to education, property, the professions, and
the political world. As the growing possibility of war amplified the calls for
national unity, Woolf suggested that such patriotic sentiment was illogical for
women, as they played no role in the public life of the nation.