The decade following the great economic and financial crisis of 2008 saw the European Union demanding regional leadership. The eu has also suffered a number of other existential crises, such as the ongoing refugee crisis, the Ukraine-Russia military confrontation, the revival of nationalism and radical right-wing populism, alongside the “trade war” between the United States and the eu. The article develops a novel theoretical framework structuring leadership as a peculiar typology of power, characterized by the capacity of both including “followership” countries’ interests and providing crisis management. Our central argument is that Germany responded strategically to leadership demand in Europe through a positive power role, exhibiting the inclusion of followership and multilateral leadership rather than hegemonic, together with crisis management skills based on solid influence over regional outcomes. Conclusions are drawn from five key case studies drawn from different policy areas.
Valerio Alfonso Bruno is currently Postdoctoral Researcher at the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) and holds a PhD in Institutions and Policies from the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano (2017), and was doctoral researcher at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland (2015), after studying Philosophy at the Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Paris IV Sorbonne, and International Relations at aseri in Milan. His articles have been published on international journals, including: Social Europe, The Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Public Seminar of the New School, European Politics & Policy of the London School of Economics. Email: email@example.com
Giacomo Finzi holds a B.A. in International Relations, a master’s in International Relations and Diplomatic Studies, and a Masters in Latin American Studies. He is a PhD Candidate in Political Studies and International Relations, at the National University of Colombia where he is an Assistant Professor and English teacher. His research interests include geopolitics, social and economics in Latin American countries (Colombia, Chile and Ecuador), social movements, political ecology, rural conflicts in indigenous and farmer communities, critical thinking, and decolonial studies. He is also a press analyst in Colombia, Chile, and Israel-Palestine. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org