The Better Angels of Our Nature makes a bold contribution to the deep history of
human violence. By laying out a framework for understanding this history, Steven Pinker
has provided an important point of departure for all future scholarship in this area. Pinker’s
depiction of violence in medieval Europe, however, includes serious misrepresentations
of the historical reality of this period; his handling of the scholarship on medieval Europe
raises doubts about his treatment of other periods. This article also offers a brief review of
recent psychological literature that suggests that subjective well-being is historically invariant.
In light of this review, I argue that Better Angels is best understood not as a work of
history but as a study in moral and historical theology, and recommend that the history of
violence should feature the cognitive experiences of victims rather than aggressors.