Westernization and Israelization within Israel’s Extreme Orthodox Haredi Society

in Israel Studies Review
View More View Less
  • 1 Tel Aviv University menachem.keren.kratz@gmail.com
Restricted access

abstract

Belying its conservative and old-fashioned image, Haredi society is constantly changing. Scholars examining these changes debate their direction and scope as well as their future implications. In this article I address the most striking example of these social changes. I argue that not only is Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) society adopting Western social values in addition to certain Israeli characteristics, but that these processes are occurring even within the most extreme sub-group of Haredi society, which I refer to as Extreme Orthodoxy. I then proceed to offer several examples to demonstrate how, in recent decades, Extreme Orthodoxy has appropriated many Western and Israeli social and behavioral traits.

Contributor Notes

menachem keren-kratz holds a DMD from the Hebrew University (1985). He also has a PhD in Yiddish Literature from Bar-Ilan University (2009) and an additional PhD in Jewish History from Tel Aviv University (2013). His recently published book is titled Maramaros-Sziget: Extreme Orthodoxy and Secular Jewish Culture in the Foothills of the Carpathian Mountains (2013, in Hebrew). His forthcoming book is a biography of Rabbi Yoel Teitelbaum, the Satmar Rebbe.

  • Amrusy, Emili. 2012. “Behind the Walls.” [In Hebrew.] Israel Hayom, 6 April.

  • Anonymous. 1985. The Second World War. [In Yiddish.] New York: Tif’eret.

  • Anonymous. 1990. Rabbi Ya’acov Yitzchak Weiss Memorial Book. [In Hebrew.] Jerusalem: Edut Kovetz Torani.

  • Anonymous. 1996. The Schism in Hungary. [In Yiddish.] New York: Tif’eret.

  • Anonymous. 1997. Moshe Ascended to Heaven … on Rabbi Moshe Arye Freund. [In Hebrew.] Bnei Brak: Shem Olam.

  • Anonymous. 2006. Satmar Institutions in Williamsburg: Torah Ve-Yir’ah Yeshiva. [In Yiddish.] New York: Mesivta Torah Ve-Yir’ah Kiryas Yoel.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Basok, Motti, and Hila Weisberg. 2012. “Haredi Society Goes to Work: An 18% Increase in Haredi Participation in the Workforce.” [In Hebrew.] The Marker, 7 March.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baumel, Simeon D. 2002. “Communication and Change: Newspapers, Periodicals, and Acculturation among Israeli Haredim.” Jewish History 16, no. 2: 161186.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bein, Anat. 2002. “Levi’s Jeans under BaDaTz Supervision.” [In Hebrew.] The Marker, 21 March.

  • Ben-Haim, Avishay. 2004. “The Rabbi Said: ‘Smash All Cell Phones.’” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 1 December.

  • Ben-Haim, Avishay. 2006. “The Pride of the Edah.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 9 November.

  • Ben-Haim, Avishay. 2007a. “The Bat-Sheba Ensemble.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 15 September.

  • Ben-Haim, Avishay. 2007b. “Sabbath Enters: Dangerous Trips.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 5 August.

  • Ben-Haim, Avishay. 2007c. “Yehuda Meshi-Zahav Proclaims War on the Violent Neturei Karta Group.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 20 January.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ben-Ya’acov, Ilan. 2010. “Electricity in Halakhah: Halakhah Leaders Dealing with Electricity.” [In Hebrew.] PhD diss., Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blau, Amram. 2012. The Religious Thought of Rabbi Amram Blau. [In Hebrew.] Jerusalem: Yoelish Kraus.

  • Blau, Uri. 2007. “Help!” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 6 January.

  • Broyde, Michael J., and Howard Jachter. 1991. “The Use of Electricity on Shabbat and Yom Tov.” Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society 21: 447.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caplan, Kimmy. 2007. Internal Popular Discourse in Israeli Haredi Society. [In Hebrew.] Jerusalem: Merkaz Zalman Shazar.

  • Carmel, Asaf. 2005. “From Water Heating Installation Contractor to Author and the Enemy of Hasidim.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 22 October.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carp, Elit. 2007. “Happy End, with God’s Will: A Glimpse into Haredi Secular Literature.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 26 July.

  • Cohen, Ely. 2015. “The Grandson of the Toldot Aharon Rebbe Bought an Internet Company.” [In Hebrew.] Be-Hadrey Haredim, 12 December.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, Israel. 2012. “Historic Reconciliation: The Sisters, the Rebbetzins of Sat-mar and Belz, Acted behind the Screen.” [In Hebrew.] Kikar Ha-Shabat, 23 February.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, Yishay. 2011a. “After Months: An Agreement with Or Ha-Haim Bookstore.” [In Hebrew.] Kikar Ha-Shabat, 17 November.

  • Cohen, Yishay. 2011b. “Sicarii Attacked Haredi Girls.” [In Hebrew.] Kikar Ha-Shabat, 13 November.

  • Cohen-Magen, Gil. 2011. Hasidic Courts: Photographs. [In Hebrew.] Modi’in: Ein Ayin.

  • Dan, Yosef. 1997. “Ultra-Orthodoxy Spreads: A Result of Secular Israel.” [In Hebrew.] Alpayim 15: 234254.

  • Deitch, Sender. 1996. The Holocaust in Hungary. [In Yiddish.] Vols. 13. New York: Tif’eret.

  • Deutsch, Nathaniel. 2009. “The Forbidden Fort, the Cell Phone Holocaust, and Other Haredi Encounters with Technology.” Contemporary Jewry 29, no. 1: 319.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dolev, Genya. 2005. Pashkevils: Broadsides and Polemic Posters in the Haredi Street. [In Hebrew.] Jerusalem: Yad ben Zvi.

  • Doron, Shlomi. 2013. Shuttling between Two Worlds: Coming to and Defecting from Ultra-Orthodox Judaism in Israeli Society. [In Hebrew.] Tel Aviv: Ha-kibbutz Ha-me’ukhad Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Efrati, Ido. 2004. “Haredi Real Estate at the Periphery: A Profile.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 13 August.

  • Efrati, Nathan. 1991. The Jewish Community in Eretz-Israel during World War I (1914–1918). [In Hebrew.] Jerusalem: Yad Ben Zvi.

  • Ehrlich, Yifat. 2008. “Hiding the Face.” [In Hebrew.] Makor Rishon, 13 April.

  • Eli, Yossi. 2011. “Religious Extremism in Beit Shemesh: Under the Protection of Its Shas Representative Mayor.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 29 December.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • El’or, Tamar. 1992. Educated and Uneducated Haredi Women. [In Hebrew.] Tel Aviv: Zehuyot Library, Am Oved.

  • Ettinger, Yair. 2006. “Neturei Karta and Satmar Argue the Extent of Anti-Zionist Concepts.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 20 December.

  • Ettinger, Yair. 2007a. “Comics and Thrillers Next to Halakhah Books.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 12 June.

  • Ettinger, Yair. 2007b. “The Haredi Takeover of Beit Shemesh.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 5 December.

  • Ettinger, Yair. 2007c. “The Rabbis Are More Concerned about the Spiritual Dangers.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 28 July.

  • Ettinger, Yair. 2008a. “Modern Yeshiva, but Still a Yeshiva.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 12 March.

  • Ettinger, Yair. 2008b. “Second Round of the Languages Battle.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 26 March.

  • Ettinger, Yair. 2010. “The Land of the Rising Sun: Haredi Opposition to the Rule of Small Politicians and of Hasidic Courts in Beit Shemesh.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 27 August.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ettinger, Yair. 2011. “Jerusalem Presents: Extra-Kosher Swimming.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 19 August.

  • Ettinger, Yair, and Uri Blau. 2008. “What Is Wrong with Them.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 12 April.

  • Fuchs, Yossi. 2011. “Worse Precedent in Mea Shearim: ‘No Entry’ Signs for Those Who Wear IDF Uniforms.” [In Hebrew.] Kikar Ha-Shabat, 7 September.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galili, Shuki. 2005. “Are Haredi Afraid of the WWW or Are They Part of It.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 20 May.

  • Geony, Yael. 2001. “Kosher Supervision Sells.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 12 November.

  • Geony, Yael. 2002. “‘Mutagim’ Institute: 87% Are Willing to Buy Meat Supervised by BaDaTz Edah Ha-Haredit. In Second Place: Rabbi Landa’s Supervision.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 7 January.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gertner, Haim. 2006. “Machine-Made Matzot: Orthodox Identity Defined through Halakhah Debate.” [In Hebrew.] Pp. 395425 in Orthodox Judaism: New Perspectives, ed.Yosef Salmon, Aviezer Ravitzky, and Adam Ferziger. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilhar, Ari. 2013. “Renewal of Riots in Beit Shemesh This Morning.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 18 August.

  • Goldstein, Tani. 2007. “Not All Is Kosher with Haredi Private Electric Generators.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 12 October.

  • Goren, Yuval. 2013. “Modi’in Ilit Faces Rape Allegations.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 7 February.

  • Granevitz, Aharon. 2003. “Ben-Gurion Is Mine.” [In Hebrew.] Be-Sheva, 2 May.

  • Grumet, Louis, and John M. Caher. 2016. The Curious Case of Kiryas Joel: The Rise of a Village Theocracy and the Battle to Defend the Separation of Church and State. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gur, Nachman. 2007. “Bezeq, National Communication Company: 19% of Mea Shearim Residents Have Internet Connection.” [In Hebrew.] Globes, 31 December.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gurovitz, Norma, and Ayelet Cohen-Kastro. 2004. Ultra-Orthodox Jews’ Geographic Distribution and Demographic, Social, and Economic Characteristics of the Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Population in Israel 1996–2001. [In Hebrew.] Jerusalem: Central Bureau of Statistics, Demography Sector.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayun, Bar. 2007. “Kosher Espresso on Sabbath.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 19 December.

  • Hayun, Eliezer. 2008. “The New Haredi Society.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 17 June.

  • Hayun, Eliezer. 2013. “A Talmudic Scholar Requires a Career Woman.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 24 May.

  • Heilman, Samuel C. 2006. Sliding to the Right: The Contest for the Future of American Jewish Orthodoxy. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heruty-Sover, Tali. 2007. “Changing the World with God’s Help.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 3 January.

  • Horowitz, Avner. 2000. “The Haredi Society and the Internet.” [In Hebrew.] Kivunim Hadashim 3: 730.

  • Ilan, Shahar. 1992. “Haredi Society Faces Economic Crisis.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 19 February.

  • Ilan, Shahar. 2006a. “Hugo Doss.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 22 April.

  • Ilan, Shahar. 2006b. “Running after the Flock.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 25 June.

  • Ilani, Ofri. 2007. “Internet? No Such Thing.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 1 January.

  • Isaacs, Miriam. 1999. “Contentious Partners: Yiddish and Hebrew in Haredi Israel.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 138, no. 1: 101122.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kadosh, Nurit. 2006. “Top Model Nullifies Kosher Approval.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 21 December.

  • Kadosh, Refael. 2010. “Extremist Religious Philosophy: The Radical Doctrines of the Satmar Rebbe.” PhD diss., University of Cape Town.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karlinsky, Nahum. 2007. “The Dawn of Hasidic-Haredi Historiography.” Modern Judaism 27 no. 1: 2046.

  • Keren-Kratz, Menachem. 2013. “Rabbi Yoel Teitelbaum—the Satmar Rebbe (1887–1979): A Biography.” PhD diss., Tel Aviv University.

  • Keren-Kratz, Menachem. 2015a. “Marmaros, Hungary—The Cradle of Extreme Orthodoxy.” Modern Judaism 35, no. 2: 147174.

  • Keren-Kratz, Menachem. 2015b. “Orthodoxy as a Pseudo-Evolutionary Multi-System.” [In Hebrew.] Zehuyot 6: 2354.

  • Keren-Kratz, Menachem. 2016. “Ha-Edah Ha-Haredit in Jerusalem and Its Relation to the State of Israel 1948–1973.” [In Hebrew.] Cathedra 161: 139174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kranzler, George. 1995. Hasidic Williamsburg: A Contemporary American Hasidic Community. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

  • Lupo, Ya’acov. 2000. The Turning Point of Haredi Society: Professional and Academic Studies. [In Hebrew.] Jerusalem: The Floresheimer Institute for Policy Studies.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magnazy, Aviel. 2014. “Neturei Karta Member Jailed after Offering to Spy on Israel on Behalf of Iran.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 20 January.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manzini, Ronen, and Kobi Nahshony. 2009. “Ha-Edah Ha-Haredit’s Leader Hospitalized at Hadassah.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 7 October.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marciano, David. 2005. “Haredi Town: The Prettiest in Israel.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 18 November.

  • Marciano, Ilan. 2006. “The Father Suspected in His Child’s Death Is Israel Wells. The Mother: They Are Picking on Haredi.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 10 April.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meisels, David D. 2011. The Rebbe: The Extraordinary Life and Worldview of Rabbeinu Yoel Teitelbaum, the Satmar Rebbe. Lakewood, NJ: Israel Book Shop.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Menachem, Sari. 2008. “BaDaTz Will Establish Kosher Supervision for Financial Products.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 1 April.

  • Meshi-Zahav, Yehuda. 2011. “You Didn’t React to Sicarii—and Now You’ve Got the Taliban.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 24 November.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nahshony, Kobi. 2012. “Graffiti at Yad Vashem: The Sources of the Extremists’ Ideology.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 11 June.

  • Ohayon, Daniel. 2010. “Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics: Forget What You Knew—Many Residents in Bnei Brak Have Cable TV, Cellphones, Computers, and Internet Connection.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 26 October.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pilaf, Menashe. 1981. The Money Affair. [In Hebrew.] Brooklyn: Author.

  • Poll, Solomon. 1980. “The Sacred-Secular Conflict in the Use of Hebrew and Yiddish among the Ultra-Orthodox Jews of Jerusalem.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 24: 109125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porat, Yehoshua, and Ya’akov Shavit. 1982. The History of Eretz Israel. Vol. 9: The British Mandate and the Jewish National Home. [In Hebrew.] Jerusalem: Keter and Yad Ben Zvi.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabbi, Shmuel, and Yossi Katz. 2008. “For the First Time in History Ha-Edah Ha-Haredit’s Supervisors Have Made a Hotel Strictly Kosher.” [In Hebrew.] Be-Hadrey Haredim, 28 August.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rapoport-Albert, Ada. 1988. “Hagiography with Footnotes: Edifying Tales and the Writing of History in Hasidism.” Pp. 119159 in Essays in Jewish Historiography, ed.Ada Rapoport-Albert. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reinitz, Ya’acov. 2007. “Kosher Supervision by Satellite Technology.” [In Hebrew.] Ba-Kehila, 29 November.

  • Robinson, Ira. 1998. “Hasidic Hagiography and Jewish Modernity.” Pp. 405412 in Jewish History and Jewish Memory, ed.Elisheva Carlebach, John M. Efron, and David N. Myers. Hanover, NH: Brandeis University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, Ira. 2007. “Halakha Adapts to Modern Technology in the Early Twentieth Century: Rabbis Yudel Rosenberg and Shlomo Zalman Auerbach on Elec tricity.” Journal of Modern Jewish Studies 6, no. 1: 4150.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosenberg, Oz. 2010. “Accompanied by Police, Egged Bus Company Returns to Mea Shearim.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 30 October.

  • Rotem, Tamar. 2004a. “Haredi Overtake the Community Centers.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 7 November.

  • Rotem, Tamar. 2004b. “Holy War against Internet Content Services.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 1 October.

  • Rotem, Tamar. 2005. “The ‘Drawers Method’ Works.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 7 April.

  • Rotem, Tamar. 2006. “Instead of Getting Beaten Up by the ‘Chastity Brigades.’” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 6 July.

  • Rotem, Tamar. 2007a. “After Years of Refusal, Haredi Children Are Vaccinated.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 8 November.

  • Rotem, Tamar. 2007b. “Klatzkin and the Zealots.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 2 October.

  • Rotem, Tamar. 2007c. “This Is Not Kabul, Afghanistan: Women Wear Burka in Beit Shemesh, Too.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 24 November.

  • Rotem, Tamar. 2008a. “Disguised as the Holy Mother.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 4 April.

  • Rotem, Tamar. 2008b. “The Majority of Sexually Assaulted Haredi Children Are Not Treated Properly.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 1 April.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rotem, Tamar. 2010. “No-Stop in Black: Separating Walls in Haredi Society.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 30 October.

  • Rubin, Moshe. 2014. “Not Just the IDF: Ha-Edah Ha-Haredit Will Use UAVs to Supervise Shmita.” [In Hebrew.] Be-Hadrey Haredim, 9 January.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sapir, Karmit. 2007. “Mea Shearim: Another World Just a Step Away.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 4 January.

  • Schwartz, Shuly R. 2006. The Rabbi’s Wife: The Rebbetzin in American Jewish Life. New York: New York University Press.

  • Sela, Neta. 2006a. “Haredi Society Is Concerned about the Situation.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 28 July.

  • Sela, Neta. 2006b. “The Sicarii Frighten the Haredi Society of Jerusalem.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 31 August.

  • Sela, Neta. 2007a. “Friedman Hugs [Ahmadinejad] Again.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 14 November.

  • Sela, Neta. 2007b. “Jerusalem: Teheran and Back.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 23 April.

  • Sela, Neta, and Efrat Weiss. 2006. “Thousands of Haredi Demonstrate against the Pride Parade in Jerusalem.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 2 November.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shalom, Efrat. 2004. “No to Sculptures or Paintings, Yes to Stylish Wooden Floors in the Living Rooms.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 11 April.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaulzon, Haim. 1994. “Bitter War in Jerusalem against Rabbi Leibel Minzberg.” [In Yiddish.] Di Haredishe Velt, 10 Tevet 5,755 (4 December).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shefer, Doron. 2005. “We Had No Other Place to Go So We Came to Beitar Illit.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 29 August.

  • Shilhav, Yosef, and Motti Caplan. 2003. Haredi Society and Ecology. [In Hebrew.] Jerusalem: Jerusalem Institute for Israeli Studies.

  • Shloser, Sinay. 2006. “Jerusalem Municipality Will Renovate the Mea Shearim Street.” [In Hebrew.] Tzofar, 3 July.

  • Shmuely, Semadar. 2001. “I Said Amen after Each Beating.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 26 March.

  • Shneler, Refael. 1978. “The Development of Girls’ Education in the Edah Ha-Haredit’s Institutions.” [In Hebrew.] Pp. 321342 in An Epigram of David: Rabbi David Ochs Memorial Volume, ed.Gilat Stern and Eliezer Stern. Ramat Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sivan, Emmanuel. 1995. “The Enclave Culture.” Pp. 1168 in Fundamentalisms Comprehended, ed.Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spivak, Moshe. 2007. “The Life Brigade.” [In Hebrew.] Shoping Mekomi, 10 August.

  • Stauber, Chaim M. 2011. The Satmar Rebbe: The Life and Times of Rav Yoel Teitelbaum. Ed.Devora Gliksman. Jerusalem: Feldheim Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steinmetz, Simona. 2002. “Views of Haredi Men on Husbands Using Violence against Their Wives.” [In Hebrew.] MA thesis, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

    • Export Citation
  • Teitelbaum, Yoel. 1967. On Redemption and Change. [In Hebrew.] Brooklyn: Jerusalem Books.

  • Tessler, Yitzchak. 2009. “Haredi Internet Sites Are Still Continuing to Shut Down.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 20 December.

  • Tzarfati, Orly. 2002. “Between ‘Social Enclave’ and ‘Virtual Enclave’: The Haredi Society and the Digital Media.” [In Hebrew.] Kesher 32: 4755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tzifroni, Na’ama, and Bambi Sheleg. 2007. “I Am Concerned about the Future of Haredi Society.” [In Hebrew.] Eretz Aheret 41: 1828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vered, Ronit, and Eyal Tueg. 2007. “Five Stations in Mea Shearim.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 11 September.

  • Weinstock, Moshe. 2011. Uman: The Israeli Journey to the Grave of Rabbi Nachman of Braslav. [In Hebrew.] Tel Aviv: Miskal.

  • Weiss, Efrat. 2003. “Meshi-Zahav: My Activities Today Are My Atonement for My Past Rebellion.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 29 April.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiss, Efrat. 2008. “The Abusing Mother Affair: The Son Is Suspected of Incest.” [In Hebrew.] Ha’aretz, 27 March.

  • Weiss, Efrat, and Ronen Manzini. 2009. “The Abusing Mother Affair: Vice Manager of Hadassah Is Threatened.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 19 July.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weisshaus, Yechezkiel Y. 2012. The Rebbe: A Glimpse into the Daily Life of the Satmar Rebbe, Rabbeinu Yoel Teitelbaum. Lakewood, NJ: Israel Book Shop.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yudelevitz, Merav. 2007. “The Documentary Joel, Israel, and the Broadsides Won the Warsaw Award.” [In Hebrew.] Yediot Aharonot, 17 May.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zalcberg, Sima. 2005. “The World of the Hasidic Women of Toldot Aharon.” [In Hebrew.] PhD diss., Bar-Ilan University.

  • Zalcberg, Sima. 2007. “The First Commandment Is to Be Normal.” [In Hebrew.] Eretz Aheret 41: 3036.

  • Zemer, Efrat. 2007. “Rabbi Energy.” [In Hebrew.] Ma’ariv, 28 October.

  • Zevuluni, Noah. 1994. “The Extreme Orthodox Arrive at the Western Wall.” [In Hebrew.] Davar, 20 October.

  • Ziv, Amitai. 2011. “‘Partner Communications’ Launches Haredi Cell Phone in Yiddish.” [In Hebrew.] The Marker, 20 April.

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 175 175 50
Full Text Views 39 39 2
PDF Downloads 8 8 2