Adaptive Regulation

A Possible Model for Regulation and Innovation in Personal Social Services

in Israel Studies Review
View More View Less
  • 1 Sapir Academic College, Israel lahat_l@mail.sapir.ac.il
  • 2 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA, and Central Bureau of Statistics, Israel coutys@cbs.gov.il
Restricted access

Abstract

The provision of personal social services in Israel has recently changed, with many services now outsourced to non-governmental organizations. This shift requires the strengthening of regulatory mechanisms, yet the unique characteristics of personal social services make it difficult to create an efficient regulatory framework. By linking insights derived from the literature on regulation to the specific features of these services, this article presents a conceptual model for their regulation. The model incorporates aspects of innovation in the public sector, including a more comprehensive learning and collaborative process and a new rhetorical language. The proposed regulatory approach consists of three stages: mapping, the design of regulatory instruments, and implementation and evaluation. Applied to the Israeli experience here, this approach may also be relevant for other countries.

Contributor Notes

LIHI LAHAT is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Administration and Public Policy at Sapir Academic College and an Affiliate Associate Professor at the Azrieli Institute of Israel Studies, Concordia University, Montreal. Her papers have been published in journals including Policy Sciences, Social Policy & Administration, International Review of Administrative Sciences, Journal of European Social Policy, and Poverty & Public Policy. Her areas of research include policymakers’ perceptions of poverty, the regulation of personal social services, the trust and well-being of public officials, uses of time and policy, and collaborative governance. E-mail: lahat_l@mail.sapir.ac.il

YEKOUTIEL SABAH is a Research Associate in the School of Social Work at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and Coordinator of the National Statistical System of Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics. Previously, he held the position of Head of the Research, Planning, and Training Division at Israel's Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, and Social Services. He holds a PhD and a BSW from the Hebrew University's School of Social Work, an MA from the Hebrew University's School of Education, and an MPA from Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government. E-mail: coutys@cbs.gov.il

  • Amirkhanyan, Anna A., Kenneth J. Meier, and Laurence J. O'Toole Jr. 2017. “Managing in the Regulatory Thicket: Regulation Legitimacy and Expertise.” Public Administration Review 77 (3): 381394.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ayres, Ian, and John Braithwaite. 1992. Responsive Regulation: Transcending the Deregulation Debate. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Baldwin, Robert, Martin Cave, and Martin Lodge. 2012. Understanding Regulation: Theory, Strategy, and Practice. New York: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benish, Avishai. 2014. “Outsourcing, Discretion, and Administrative Justice: Exploring the Acceptability of Privatized Decision Making.” Law & Policy 36 (2): 113133.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benish, Avishai, Dana Halevy, and Shimon Spiro. 2018. “Regulating Social Welfare Services: Between Compliance and Learning.” International Journal of Social Welfare 27 (3): 226235.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bilton, Douglas, and Harry Cayton. 2013. “Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers.” British Journal of Guidance & Counselling 41 (1): 1423.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, Julia. 1996. “Constitutionalising Self-Regulation.” Modern Law Review 59 (1): 2455.

  • Boukamel, Owen, Yves Emery, and Hanneke Gieske. 2019. “Towards an Integrative Framework of Innovation Capacity.” Innovation Journal 24 (3): 136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braithwaite, John. 2001. “Regulating Nursing Homes: The Challenge of Regulating Care for Older People in Australia.” BMJ 323 (7310): 443446.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braithwaite, John. 2006. “Responsive Regulation and Developing Economies.” World Development 34 (5): 884898.

  • Braithwaite, John, Toni Makkai, and Valerie Braithwaite. 2007. Regulating Aged Care: Ritualism and the New Pyramid. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

  • Brown, Patrick R., and Michael Calnan. 2011. “The Civilizing Process of Trust: Developing Quality Mechanisms Which Are Local, Professional-Led and Thus Legitimate.” Social Policy & Administration 45 (1): 1934.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carter, David P. 2017. “Role Perceptions and Attitudes toward Discretion at a Decentralized Regulatory Frontline: The Case of Organic Inspectors.” Regulation & Governance 11 (4): 353367.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CQC (Care Quality Commission). n.d. “Give Feedback on Care.” https://www.cqc.org.uk/share-your-experience-finder.

  • Dal Bó, Ernesto. 2006. “Regulatory Capture: A Review.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 22 (2): 203225.

  • Daly, Tamara, Jim Struthers, Beatrice Müller, Deanne Taylor, Monika Goldmann, Malcolm Doupe, and Frode F. Jacobsen. 2016. “Prescriptive or Interpretive Regulation at the Frontlines of Care Work in the ‘Three Worlds’ of Canada, Germany and Norway.” Labour/Le Travail 77 (1): 3771.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Vries, Hanna, Victor Bekkers, and Lars Tummers. 2016. “Innovation in the Public Sector: A Systematic Review and Future Research Agenda.” Public Administration 94 (1): 146166.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Downe, James, and Steve Martin. 2007a. “Inspecting for Improvement? Emerging Patterns of Public Service Regulation in the UK.” Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 25 (3): 410422.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Downe, James, and Steve Martin. 2007b. “Regulation Inside Government: Processes and Impacts of Inspection of Local Public Services.” Policy & Politics 35 (2): 215232.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flemig, Sophie. 2015. “New Development: A Game of Responsibility? The Regulation of Health and Social Care Professionals.” Public Money & Management 35 (2): 169171.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forkby, Torbjörn, and Staffan Höjer. 2011. “Navigations between Regulations and Gut Instinct: The Unveiling of Collective Memory in Decision-Making Processes Where Teenagers Are Placed in Residential Care.” Child & Family Social Work 16 (2): 159168.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frossard, Michel, Nathalie Genin, Marie-Jo Guisset, and Alain Villez. 2019. “Providing Integrated Health and Social Care for Older Persons in France—An Old Idea with a Great Future.” In Providing Integrated Health and Social Care for Older Persons: A European Overview of Issues at Stake, ed. Kai Leichsenring and Andy M. Alaszewski, 229268. Aldershot: Ashgate.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furness, Sheila. 2009. “A Hindrance or a Help? The Contribution of Inspection to the Quality of Care in Homes for Older People.” British Journal of Social Work 39 (3): 488505.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodship, Jo, Kevin Jacks, Matt Gummerson, Judith Lathlean, and Stephen Cope. 2004. “Modernising Regulation or Regulating Modernisation? The Public, Private and Voluntary Interface in Adult Social Care.” Public Policy and Administration 19 (2): 1327.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gunningham, Neil, and Darren Sinclair. 1998. “Designing Smart Regulation.” Made available by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. https://www.oecd.org/env/outreach/33947759.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haley, Brendan. 2016. “Getting the Institutions Right: Designing the Public Sector to Promote Clean Innovation.” Canadian Public Policy 42 (S1): 5466.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartley, Jean. 2005. “Innovation in Governance and Public Services: Past and Present.” Public Money and Management 25 (1): 2734.

  • Hirschman, Albert O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hood, Christopher, Colin Scott, Oliver James, George Jones, and Tony Travers. 1999. Regulation Inside Government: Waste-Watchers, Quality Police, and Sleaze-Busters. New York: Oxford University Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts. 2018. Care Quality Commission: Regulating Health and Social Care. Twenty-Fourth Report of Session 2017–19. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmpubacc/465/465.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howlett, Michael, and M. Ramesh. 2003. Studying Public Policy: Policy Cycles and Policy Subsystems. 2nd ed. Ontario: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katan, Yoseph. 1996. Personal Social Services: Trends and Contributions. [In Hebrew.] Tel Aviv: Ramot.

  • Klenk, Tanja. 2019. “Street-Level Bureaucrats as Market Regulators: The Case of the German Long-Term Care Market.” Paper presented at the “Regulating for Welfare? Exploring the Regulatory Dynamics and Implications of Welfare State Governance” conference, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 14–17 May.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lahat, Lihi. 2020. “Changing Expectations? The Change in the Role of the Welfare Ministry in the Regulation of Personal Social Services.” ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 691: 153173.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lahat, Lihi, and Gal Talit. 2015. “Regulation of Personal Social Services: The Israeli Experience.” Social Policy & Administration 49 (3): 335355.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laughlin, Richard, and Mannie Sher. 2010. “Developing Leadership in a Social Care Enterprise: Managing Organisational and Individual Boundaries and Anxiety: An Action Learning Approach to Leadership Development.” Organisational and Social Dynamics 10 (1): 121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lethbridge, Jane. 2019. Project PESSIS+: Promoting Employers’ Social Services in Social Dialogue. Final European Report, May. http://socialemployers.eu/files/doc/Lethbridge%20final%20July%2019%20European%20Report%20PESSIS%20+.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levi-Faur, David. 2011. “Regulation and Regulatory Governance.” In Handbook on the Politics of Regulation, ed. David Levi-Faur, 321. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levi-Faur, David. 2014. “The Welfare State: A Regulatory Perspective.” Public Administration 92 (3): 599614.

  • Lim, Sijeong, and Aseem Prakash. 2014. “Voluntary Regulations and Innovation: The Case of ISO 14001.” Public Administration Review 74 (2): 233244.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Linder, Stephen H., and B. Guy Peters. 1989. “Instruments of Government: Perceptions and Contexts.” Journal of Public Policy 9 (1): 3558.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lynch-Wood, Gary, and David Williamson. 2019. “The Modern Welfare System: A Performative Regulation Perspective.” Unpublished manuscript (cited with the authors’ permission).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madhala-Brik, Shavit, and John Gal. 2016. The Outsourcing of Welfare Services: Trends and Changes. State of the Nation Report: Society, Economy and Policy, The Taub Center, Jerusalem, Israel. http://taubcenter.org.il/wp-content/files_mf/outsourcingeng.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Majone, Giandomenico. 1994. “The Rise of the Regulatory State in Europe.” West European Politics 17 (3): 77101.

  • Majone, Giandomenico. 1997. “From the Positive to the Regulatory State: Causes and Consequences of Changes in the Mode of Governance.” Journal of Public Policy 17 (2): 139167.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mandelkern, Ronen. 2012. “The Politics of Partial Privatization of Social Services in Israel: The Case of Housing for People with Intellectual Disabilities.” [In Hebrew.] Social Security Journal 90: 121153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • May, Peter J. 2007. “Regulatory Regimes and Accountability.” Regulation & Governance 1 (1): 826.

  • Ministry of Labor Welfare, and Social Services. n.d. “Quality Supervision and Control Administration.” [In Hebrew.] https://www.gov.il/he/departments/Units/molsa-quality-supervision-examination-administration.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Munro, Eileen. 2004. “The Impact of Audit on Social Work Practice.” British Journal of Social Work 34 (8): 10751095.

  • Osborn, Stephen P., and Louise Brown. 2013. “Introduction: Innovation in Public Services.” In Handbook of Innovation in Public Services, ed. Stephen P. Osborne and Louise Brown, 111. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ponnert, Lina, and Kerstin Svensson. 2016. “Standardisation—the End of Professional Discretion?” European Journal of Social Work 19 (3–4): 586599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sabah, Yekoutiel, and Orly Manzeli. 2016. “Proposal for the Main Office: Region Team and Regulation, Sub-team for Regulation Policy.” [In Hebrew.] Internal paper, Israeli Ministry of Labor, Welfare, and Social Services.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sabah, Yekutiel, and Patricia Cook-Craig. 2010. “Learning Teams and Virtual Communities of Practice: Managing Evidence and Expertise beyond the Stable State.” Research on Social Work Practice 20 (4): 435446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salge, Torsten Oliver, and Antonio Vera. 2012. “Benefiting from Public Sector Innovation: The Moderating Role of Customer and Learning Orientation.” Public Administration Review 72 (4): 550559.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, Anne, and Helen Ingram. 1993. “Social Construction of Target Populations: Implications for Politics and Policy.” American Political Science Review 87 (2): 334347.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Selznick, Philip. 1985. “Focusing Organizational Research on Regulation.” In Regulatory Policy and the Social Sciences, ed. Roger G. Noll, 363367. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sened, Itai. 1997. The Political Institution of Private Property. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Spender, J.-C. 1996. “Organizational Knowledge, Learning and Memory: Three Concepts in Search of a Theory.” Journal of Organizational Change Management 9 (1): 6378.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spiro, Shimon, and Dafna Frumer. 2008. Implementation of the RAF Method in the Boarding Schools of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services. [In Hebrew.] Israeli Ministry of Social Affairs and Social. https://www.molsa.gov.il/About/OfficePolicy/Documents/803db17756fa48d59fc5b0a52febfb75SHYTATHARAF2008.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spiro, Shimon, and Dafna Frumer. 2010. “Overseeing Quality in the Age of Privatization: Examining the Implementation of the RAF Method in Boarding Schools.” [In Hebrew.] Social Security 84: 105127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • State Comptroller's Office. 2017. Annual Report 67b. https://www.mevaker.gov.il/sites/DigitalLibrary/Pages/Publications/11.aspx.

  • Van de Walle, Steven, and Nadine Raaphorst. 2019. “Introduction: The Social Dynamics of Daily Inspection Work.” In Inspectors and Enforcement at the Front Line of Government, ed. Steven Van de Walle and Nadine Raaphorst, 110. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Gossum, Peter, Bas Arts, and Kris Verheyen. 2010. “From ‘Smart Regulation’ to ‘Regulatory Arrangements.’Policy Sciences 43 (3): 245261.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, Richard M., Fariborz Damanpour, and Carlos A. Devece. 2011. “Management Innovation and Organizational Performance: The Mediating Effect of Performance Management.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 21 (2): 367386.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, Richard M., and Emma Jeanes. 2001. “Innovation in a Regulated Service: The Case of English Housing Associations.” Public Management Review 3 (4): 525550.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yanai, Uri. 2006. “The Welfare Law, 5718-1958: Is it Really the Basis and Guarantee of the Population's Welfare?” [In Hebrew.] Position paper, Hebrew University, Paul Baerwald School of Social Work and Social Welfare, Jerusalem.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zemach-Marom, Tamar. 2008. “The Relationship between Research and Practice in Implementing the RAF Method for Quality Assurance in Residential Settings for Children in Israel.” In Research for Action: Cross-National Perspectives on Connecting Knowledge, Policy, and Practice for Children, ed. Robert J. Chaskin and Jona M. Rosenfeld, 6787. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 289 289 17
Full Text Views 38 38 5
PDF Downloads 44 44 7