Innovation in Protest Strategies of Ethiopian Immigrants’ Organizations in Israel

in Israel Studies Review
Author: Adi Binhas 1
View More View Less
  • 1 Beit Berl College, Israel adibinhas@gmail.com
Restricted access

Abstract

Since the 1990s, organizations formed by Israelis of Ethiopian origin (IEO) have criticized the government's policy toward them. This article deals with the development of, and innovation in, those organizations’ activities. Our research question looks at the elements of innovation that helped these organizations improve the effectiveness of their work with the government and in the public sphere. We base our study on interviews with IEO activists who participated in the community's protests in the 1990s, 2015, and 2020. Our theoretical overview incorporates a global perspective on innovation in policymaking and the effects of NGO networks on government policy. The article describes the development and innovation of NGOs in Israel alongside similar cases in other countries.

Contributor Notes

ADI BINHAS is a Lecturer in Political Science at Beit Berl College and Head of its MAOF Excellence Program. Her research interests include immigration policy in Israel, civil society organizations, multicultural policy in education institutes in Israel, and women immigrants in academia. She completed her postdoctoral studies at the MOFET Institute in Tel Aviv in 2018. Her articles have been published in international journals, such as International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Israel Affairs, Public Sector Innovation Journal, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Policy Studies Journal, and International Journal of Multicultural Education. E-mail: adibinhas@gmail.com

  • Alcadipani, Rafael, and John Hassard. 2010. “Actor-Network Theory, Organizations and Critique: Towards a Politics of Organizing.” Organization 17 (4): 419435. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508410364441

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, James E. 2006. Public Policymaking. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

  • Bar, Peleg. 2019. “Instead of Roadblocks and Arrests, the Ethiopian Protest Is Focusing on Senior Officials.” [In Hebrew.] Ha'aretz, 2 August. https://www.haaretz.co.il/news/education/.premium-1.7613918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ben-Eliezer, Uri. 2008. “How a Jew Becomes Black in the Promised Land.” [In Hebrew.] In Racism in Israel, ed. Yehouda Shenhav and Yossi Yonah, 130157. Tel Aviv: Ha-kibbutz Ha-me'ukhad Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bennett, Dalton, Joyce Sohyun Lee, and Sarah Cahlan. 2020. “The Death of George Floyd: What Video and Other Records Show about His Final Minutes.” Washington Post, 30 May. https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/05/30/video-timeline-george-floyd-death.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bevir, Mark, and David Richards. 2009. “Decentring Policy Networks: Lessons and Prospects.” Public Administration 87 (1): 132141. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9299.2008.01739.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Binhas, Adi, and Nissim Cohen. 2019. “Policy Entrepreneurs and Anti-racism Policies.” Policy Studies, 28 June. https://doi.org/10.1080/01442872.2019.1634190.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Breiner, Joshua. 2019. “Head of Police HR Division Will Not Deal with the Officer Who Shot Salomon Tekke Because of a Family Relationship.” [In Hebrew.] Ha'aretz, 21 September. https://www.haaretz.co.il/news/law/.premium-1.7545600.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bressers, Hans Th. A., and Walter A. Rosenbaum. 2000. “Innovation, Learning, and Environmental Policy: Overcoming ‘A Plague of Uncertainties.’Policy Studies Journal 28 (3): 523539. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0072.2000.tb02046.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryson, John M. 2018. Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics). 2019. “The Population of Ethiopian Origin in Israel.” [In Hebrew.] 24 November. https://old.cbs.gov.il/reader/newhodaot/hodaa_template.html?hodaa=201911355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chandler, David. 2004. Constructing Global Civil Society: Morality and Power in International Relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Creswell, John W. 2007. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Crow, Robert. 2007. “Educational and Immigration Aspects of Innovation: Educating the Innovators and Shaping Immigration Policy for High Tech Workers.” Canada-United States Law Journal 32 (1): 167175. https://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/cuslj/vol32/iss1/30

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeLeon, Peter, and Danielle M. Varda. 2009. “Toward a Theory of Collaborative Policy Networks: Identifying Structural Tendencies.” Policy Studies Journal 37 (1): 5974. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0072.2008.00295.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dye, Thomas R. 2013. Understanding Public Policy. 14th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson.

  • Eli, Yossi. 2015. “The Special Patrol Unit Policeman Who Beat a Soldier in Holon Will Be Fired: ‘He Has No Place in the Police.’” [In Hebrew.] Walla News, 28 April. https://news.walla.co.il/item/2849723.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glazer, Barney G., and Anselm L. Strauss. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Granados, Francisco J., and David Knoke. 2005. “Organized Interest Groups and Policy Networks.” In The Handbook of Political Sociology: States, Civil Societies, and Globalization, ed. Thomas Janoski, Robert Alford, Alexander M. Hicks, and Mildred A. Schwartz, 287310. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greenaway, John, Brian Salter, and Stella Hart. 2007. “How Policy Networks Can Damage Democratic Health: A Case Study in the Government of Governance.” Public Administration 85 (3): 717738. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9299.2007.00661.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Israeli Ministry of Justice. 2018. Activity Report of the Government Unit for Coordinating the Fight Against Racism. [In Hebrew.] https://www.gov.il/BlobFolder/reports/report_activity/he/report_activity.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Israeli Prime Minister's Office. 2015. “Government Policy to Promote the Optimal Integration of Ethiopians in Israeli society: Programs of the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Welfare and Social Services, and the Ministry of Health and the Implementation and Monitoring Team of the Program.” 29 October. https://www.gov.il/he/departments/policies/2015_dec609.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jandl, Michael. 2007. “Report: Innovative Concepts for Alternative Migration Policies.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 33 (1): 181184. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830601043604.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keck, Margaret E., and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klijn, E. H., and J. M. Koppenjan. 2000. “Public Management and Policy Networks: Foundations of a Network Approach to Governance.” Public Management 2 (2): 135158. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719030000000007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kvale, Steinar. 1996. InterViews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Madhala, Shavit, Michal Almog-Bar, and John Gal. 2018. Welfare Nonprofits in Israel: A Comprehensive Overview. Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel, Jerusalem. http://taubcenter.org.il/welfare-nonprofits-in-israel/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Michelson, Tomer. 2019. “The Director-General of the Ministry of Justice Only Creates an Atmosphere against Racism.” [In Hebrew.] HaMakom, 5 July. https://www.ha-makom.co.il/post-tomer-mula-palmor/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schain, Martin A. 2010. “Managing Difference: Immigrant Integration Policy in France, Britain, and the United States.” Social Research 77 (1): 205236. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40972249?seq=1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shikman, Itai, and Alexandra Lukatch. 2019. “North, Equality, and Blue-White: The Small Parties That Are Competing for Your Vote.” [In Hebrew.] Ha'aretz, 5 August. https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-5563472,00.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shlita, Chen. 2019. “Which Place to Choose and How to Avoid Political Ascription? Research Reveals—Demonstrating Is Scientific.” [In Hebrew.] Globes, 20 July. https://www.globes.co.il/news/article.aspx?did=1001293796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stensaker, Bjørn. 2006. “Governmental Policy, Organisational Ideals and Institutional Adaptation in Norwegian Higher Education.” Studies in Higher Education 31 (1): 4356. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070500392276

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stone, Diane. 2000. “Non-Governmental Policy Transfer: The Strategies of Independent Policy Institutes.” Governance 13 (1): 4570. https://doi.org/10.1111/0952-1895.00123.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Waarden, Frans. 1992. “Dimensions and Types of Policy Networks.” European Journal of Political Research 21 (1–2): 2952. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1992.tb00287.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Dan J., and Sarah A. Soule. 2016. “Tactical Innovation in Social Movements: The Effects of Peripheral and Multi-Issue Protest.” American Sociological Review 81 (3): 517548. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122416644414

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yerdai, Efrat. 2016a. “Citizens of Ethiopian Origin Break the Rules.” [In Hebrew.] Yedioth Ahronoth, 28 December.

  • Yerdai, Efrat. 2016b. “Between Yosef Salmase and Martin Luther King.” [In Hebrew.] HaMakom, 27 July. https://www.ha-makom.co.il/efrat-yerday-same-struggle/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zincone, Giovanna. 2006. “The Making of Policies: Immigration and Immigrants in Italy.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32 (3): 347375. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830600554775

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ziv, Oren. 2020. “The Social Activist Avi Yalo Is Running for Election.” [In Hebrew.] Siha Mekomit, 25 August. https://www.mekomit.co.il/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 215 215 5
Full Text Views 45 45 9
PDF Downloads 60 60 10