The Role of Public Policy in Gender Inequality in the Arts in Israel

in Israel Studies Review
Author:
Tal Dekel Program head, Kibbutzim College, Israel tdekel@tauex.tau.ac.il

Search for other papers by Tal Dekel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Lior Elefant Researcher, Ben-Gurion University, Israel lior.elefant@gmail.com

Search for other papers by Lior Elefant in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

This article deals with Israel's cultural policy and public funding for the arts—a nascent, under-developed research field in Israeli scholarship. The article focuses on the plastic arts and film, presenting data about the system of budget allocation and the structure of relevant Ministry of Culture and Sports decision-making committees. The discussion takes a gender perspective, focusing on obstacles women artists face in accessibility to public budgets for the arts. These challenges, we argue, are compounded when considering additional and overlapping identity categories. We apply intersectional analysis—a perspective that considers positionality and social background, including gender, class, race, nationality, and religion—and conclude with suggestions for improving public policy for the arts.

Contributor Notes

TAL DEKEL is Head of the Visual Literacy Studies Program at Kibbutzim College, and was Chair of the Gender Studies Forum at Tel Aviv University. Dekel specializes in feminist theories, transnationalism, and critical cultural theory of ageism. She has published extensively in peer reviewed journals, her books are Gendered: Art and Feminist Theory (Cambridge Scholars publishing); Transnational Identities: Women, Art, and Migration in Contemporary Israel (Wayne State University Press); and Critical Looks at Ageism and Gender in Israeli Art (Open University Press). E-mail: tdekel@tauex.tau.ac.il

LIOR ELEFANT is a PhD candidate at the Sociology and Anthropology Department in Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and Chair of Israeli Women in Film and Television Forum, a member of the Israeli Arts and Culture Council, and a feminist media activist. Elefant deals with gender inequality in Israeli film industry and specializes in Gender, LGBTQ, and cultural activism. Among her research: “The Celluloid Ceiling: A Gender-Based Analysis of the Israeli Film Industry” (Elefant et al. 2021); “Feminist Art Activism in Israel: Subversive Strategies in Public Spaces” (Dekel and Elefant 2020). E-mail: lior.elefant@gmail.com

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Alush Levron, Merav. 2020. Under Eastern Eyes: Identity and Self-Representation in Israeli Documentary Cinema. [In Hebrew.] Tel Aviv: Am Oved.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anheier, Helmut K. 2017. Gender Equality Policy in the Arts, Culture and Media. Berlin: Hertie School of Governance.

  • Aylett, Holly. 2016. Where Are the Women Directors in European Films? Gender Equality Report on Female Directors, 2006–2013 with Best Practice and Policy Recommendations. Strasbourg: European Women's Audiovisual Network.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benhamou, Françoise. 2003. “Artists’ Labour Markets.” In Handbook of Cultural Economics, ed. Ruth Towse, 6482. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyle, Karen. 2019. #MeToo, Weinstein and Feminism. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Buscatto, Marie. 2018. “Feminisations of Artistic Work: Legal Measures and Female Artists Resources Do Matter.” Revista Todas as Artes 1 (1): 2238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Byerly, Carolyn M., and Karen Ross. 2006. Women and Media: A Critical Introduction. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publishing.

  • Connolly, Maeve. 2020. “Women Cinematographers and Changing Irish Production Cultures.” In Women in the Irish Film Industry: Stories and Storytellers, ed. Susan Liddy, 94107. Cork: Cork University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crenshaw, Kimberle W. 1991. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color (Women of Color at the Center: Selections from the Third National Conference on Women of Color and the Law).” Stanford Law Review 43 (6): 12411299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De La Fuente, Eduardo. 2007. “‘The New Sociology of Art’: Putting Art Back into Social Science Approaches to the Arts.” Cultural Sociology 1 (3): 409425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dekel, Tal. 2013. Gendered—Art and Feminist Theory. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

  • Dekel, Tal. 2014. “At (Art)Work Value: Gendered Aspects of Income and Livelihood in the Israeli Art Field.” Hagar—Studies in Culture, Polity and Identities 11 (2): 83104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elefant, Lior, Etty Konor-Attias, Yael Hasson, and Noga Dagan-Buzaglo. 2021. The Celluloid Ceiling: A Gender-Based Analysis of the Israeli Film Industry. Tel Aviv: Adva Center.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE). 2016. Gender in Culture. Vilnius: European Institute for Gender Equality.

  • Feder, Tal, and Tally Katz-Gerro. 2012. “Who Benefits from Funding of the Performing Arts? Comparing the Art Provision and the Hegemony-Distinction Approaches.” Poetics 40 (4): 359381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freedman, Des. 2014. “Media Policy Research and the Media Industries.” Media Industries Journal 1 (1): 1115.

  • Gill, Rosalind. 2014. “Unspeakable Inequalities: Post Feminism, Entrepreneurial Subjectivity, and the Repudiation of Sexism among Cultural Workers.” Social Politics 21 (4): 509528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guilat, Yael. 2006. “Where Have You Been and What Have You Been Doing? Gendered Discourse in the Early 1990s and Its Place in Ha'Aretz Art Criticism.” [In Hebrew]. Israel 10: 199225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harel-Fisher, Edna. 2020. Mamlakhtiyut in Israel's Cultural Policy. [In Hebrew]. Jerusalem: The Israel Democracy Institute.

  • Jackson, Miranda Myles. 2020. “Overcoming the Myth of the Contemporary “Starving Artist”: An Exploration into the Fusion and Viability of a 21st Century Career in Art.” MFA thesis, Liberty University, Virginia.

  • Jamal, Amal, and Noa Lavie. 2021. “Self-Categorization, Intersectionality and Creative Freedom in the Cultural Industries: Palestinian Women Filmmakers in Israel.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 44 (6): 10301050.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnston, Claire. 1973. “Women's Cinema as Counter-Cinema.” In Notes on Women's Cinema, ed. Claire Johnston, 2233. London: Society for Education in Film and Television.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, Deborah, and Judith K. Pringle. 2015. “Unmanageable Inequalities: Sexism in the Film Industry.” The Sociological Review 63: 3749.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knesset Research Center. 2019. The Culture Budget and Budgeting Culture Institutions. [In Hebrew].

  • Lauzen, Martha. 2007. “Equal Opportunity through Knowledge and Research.” Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film. https://womenintvfilm.sdsu.edu/about-us/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leibbrandt, Andrea, Liang Choon Wang, and Cordelia Foo. 2018. “Gender Quotas, Competition, and Peer Review: Experimental Evidence on the Backlash against Women.” Management Science 64 (8): 35013516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liddy, Susan, ed. 2020. Women in the International Film Industry: Policy, Practice and Power. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Loist, Skadi. 2015. “Crossover Dreams: Global Circulation of Queer Film on the Film Festival Circuits.” Diogenes 62 (1): 5772.

  • Loist, Skadi, and Elizabeth Prommer. 2019. “Gendered Production Culture in the German Film Industry.” Media Industries Journal 6 (1): 95115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loist, Skadi, and Ger Zielinski. 2012. “On the Development of Queer Film Festivals and Their Media Activism.” Film Festival Yearbook 4: 4962.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyengar, Sunil. 2013. “Artists by Numbers: Moving from Descriptive Statistics to Impact Analysis.” Work and Occupation 40 (4): 496505.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lykke, Nina. (2010). Feminist Studies: A Guide to Intersectional Theory, Methodology and Writing. New York: Routledge.

  • Markus, Ruth. 2015. “Why Are Women Excluded from Israeli Art History?” [In Hebrew]. Erev-Rav. https://www.erev-rav.com/archives/38543.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mayer, Vicky. 2018. “Media Policy and Governance.” Feminist Media Histories 4 (2): 113116.

  • McGuigan, Jim. 2014. Rethinking Cultural Policy. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Education.

  • McRobbie, Angela. 2006. “Clubs to Companies: Notes on the Decline of Political Culture in Speeded Up Worlds.” Cultural Studies 16 (4): 516531.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nochlin, Linda. (1971) 2006. “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?: Thirty Years After.” In Women Artists at the Millennium, ed. Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher, 2138. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ochayon, Keren. 2009. “Women-Only Conferences: Empowerment or Ghetto?” [In Hebrew]. Ynet, 3 February. https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-3666060,00.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, Rozsika, and Griselda Pollock. 1981. “God's Little Artist.” In Old Mistresses: Women, Art and Ideology, 82113. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pratt, Andy C. 2005. “Cultural Industries and Public Policy.” International Journal of Public Policy 11 (1): 3144.

  • Redvall, Eva Novrup, and Inge Ejbye Sørensen. 2018. “Hard Facts, Soft Measures: Gender, Quality and Inequality Debates in Danish Film and Television in the 2010s.” Journal of Scandinavian Cinema 8 (3): 233249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Resilience & Social Equality Authority Tel Aviv—Jaffa Municipality (RSEATAJ). 2022. Equal City: The Program for Women Advancement and Gender Equality in Tel Aviv–Jaffa [in Hebrew].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ross, Karen. 2014. “Women in Media Industries in Europe: What's Wrong with This Picture?Feminist Media Studies 14 (2): 326330.

  • Savolainen, Tarja. 2020. “To Change or Not to Change? Women and Gender Equality in the Finnish Film Industry.” In Women in the International Film Industry, ed. Susan Liddy, 131148. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shohat, Ella. 1989. Israeli Cinema: East / West and the Politics of Representation. Austin: University of Texas Press.

  • Svane, Anette. 2020. “From Edith Carlmar to Iram Haq: Women in the Norwegian Film Industry.” In Women in the International Film Industry, ed. Susan Liddy, 149163. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thorsby, David. 2010. The Economics of Cultural Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Thorsby, David, and Virginia Hollister. 2003. Don't Give Up Your Day Job: An Economic Study of Professional Artists in Australia. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Towse, Ruth, ed. 2003. A Handbook of Cultural Economics. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

  • Trachtenberg, Graciela. 2010. “Between Modernism and Gender in the Art in Israel, 1920–1970: The Sociology of Art Meets the Historiography of Israeli Art History.” In How Do We Say Modernism in Hebrew? ed. Oded Hielbruner, and Michael Levin, 99153. Tel Aviv: Resling Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tzameret, Hagar, Naomi Chazan, Hanna Herzog, Yulia Bassin, Ronna Brayer-Grab, and Hadas Ben-Eliyahu. 2019, 2021. The Gender Index: Gender Inequality in Israel. Jerusalem: Van Leer Institute Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uğur Tanrıöver, Hulya. 2017. “Women as Film Directors in Turkish Cinema.” European Journal of Women's Studies 24 (4): 321335.

  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 2014. Gender Equality: Heritage and Creativity. France: UNESCO publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waring, Marilyn. 2007. “Portfolio Lives: The Work-Life Balance of Artists.” In Managing Mayhem: Work-Life Balance in New Zealand, ed. Marilyn Waring and Christa Fouché. Wellington: Dunmore.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 199 199 98
Full Text Views 18 18 5
PDF Downloads 17 17 8