On 4 December 2016, a large majority of Italian voters turned
down the most comprehensive and cohesive attempt to revise significant
parts of the Constitution since 1948, namely, to overcome
the country’s symmetrical bicameralism, to establish new state-region
relations, and to streamline institutions, in part by abolishing the provinces
and the National Council for Economics and Labor. This chapter
offers an outline of the reform, which had been boldly approved by
Parliament, and places it within its political and institutional context.
It identifies the changes that the reform was set to introduce, attempts
to assess the effects it would have had if it had been passed in the
referendum, and considers some of the consequences of its rejection.