Education and Change in the Late Ottoman Empire and Turkey

Space, Time, and Text

in Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society
Benjamin C. Fortna University of Arizona

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This article addresses the interrelated changes taking place in education during the transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic of Turkey in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In particular, it focuses on the ways in which schools altered their approach to space, time, and economic priorities in order to align themselves with the shifting conditions of the period. It proceeds by examining a series of tensions between the desiderata of state and society, the collective and the individual, the secular and the religious, the national and the supranational, before assessing the diverse range of responses they elicited.

Contributor Notes

Benjamin C. Fortna is a professor in and the director of the School of Middle Eastern and North African Studies at the University of Arizona, Tucson. E-mail:

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  • Arakel. Talim-i kıraat. Istanbul: Arakel, 1887.

  • Cevad, Ahmed. Cumhuriyet Çocuklarına Türkçe Kıraat 1:1. Istanbul: Hilmi, 1929.

  • Fuad, Köprülüzâde Mehmed. Cumhuriyet Çocuklarına Yeni Millî Kıraat. Istanbul: Kanaat, 1926.

  • Ziya, Mehmed. Çocuklara Kıraat. Istanbul: n.p., 1881.


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