History Teaching and Cultural Hegemony

Representations of the Spanish Civil War in Francoist History Textbooks of the 1960s

in Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society
Author:
Johanna FrickeUniversity of Osnabrück, Germany johanna.fricke@uni-osnabrueck.de

Search for other papers by Johanna Fricke in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

In the 1960s, facing a series of transformations within Spanish society, the Franco regime modified its self-legitimation strategy and with it its portrayal of the Spanish Civil War. Based on the analysis of nine history textbooks for various levels published between 1954 and 1970, this article demonstrates that, by aiming to neutralize increasing demands for democracy, reconciliation and peace, the Franco regime incorporated elements of the corresponding discourses into its own memory discourse. The later the year of publication and the higher the age of the intended readership, the more signs of this process of incorporation appear in the textbooks. Examples of such traces can be found in the terms used to denote the Spanish Civil War, in the textbooks’ characterizations of the two opposing sides, and in their presentation of both the Francoist governmental system and the development of Spain under Francoism.

Contributor Notes

Johanna Fricke is a research and teaching assistant and doctoral student in the Department of Romance Studies at the University of Osnabrück. Email: johanna.fricke@uni-osnabrueck.de

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Ediciones H. S. R., ed., Nueva Enciclopedia Escolar: Período de Enseñanza Elemental, 3°–4° Primaria [New school encyclopedia: Primary education years 3–4, first level]. Burgos: Hijos de Santiago Rodríguez, 1954. (H. S. R. 3°–4° Primaria 1954)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ediciones S. M., ed. Historia de España: Grado Elemental: 4° Primaria [Spanish history: Primary school year 4: First level]. Madrid: Ediciones S. M., 1962. (S. M. 4° Primaria 1962)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Otaño, José L. Geografía e Historia de España: Curso de Iniciación, 3° Primaria [Geography and Spanish history: Introductory course for year 3, first level]. Madrid: Ediciones S. M., 1962. (S. M. 3° Primaria 1962)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lasagabaster, Ignacio Arenaza and Fermín Gastaminza Ibarburu, eds. Historia Universal y de España: Bachillerato Elemental [World and Spanish history: Second level]. Madrid: Ediciones S. M., 1964. (S. M. Bachillerato 1964)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reig, Juan M. Grima. Historia: Bachillerato Elemental [History: Second level]. Valencia: Ediciones E. C. I. R., 1961. (E. C. I. R. Bachillerato 1961)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Note: New editions of each of these two textbooks were published in 1965, but no modifications were made to the lessons on the Spanish Civil War (cf. Juan M. Grima Reig, Historia: Bachillerato Elemental [History: Secondary level] (Valencia: Ediciones E. C. I. R., 1965); and Ignacio Arenaza Lasagabaster and Fermín Gastaminza Ibarburu, eds., Historia Universal y de España: Bachillerato Elemental [World and Spanish history: Secondary level] (Madrid: Ediciones S. M., 1964) (S. M. Bachillerato 1965).

  • Navarro, Manuel Rivas and Victorino Arroyo del Castillo, eds. Geografía e Historia: 5° Primaria [Geography and history: Year five of primary school]. Madrid: Ediciones Anaya, 1970. (Anaya 5° Primaria 1970)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Payá Ibars, M. Raquel and Felipe G. Perles Martí, eds. Cada Día: Geografía e Historia, 5° Primaria [Every day: Geography and history, year five of primary school]. Burgos: Hijos de Santiago Rodríguez, 1969. (H. S. R. 5° Primaria 1969)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lasagabaster, Ignacio Arenaza and Fermín Gastaminza Ibarburu, eds. Historia de España y Universal: Bachillerato Elemental [World and Spanish history: Second level]. Madrid: Ediciones S. M., 1970). (S. M. Bachillerato 1970)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tejada, Luis Coronas. Las cosas que han pasado: 8° Primaria [The things that have happened: Year eight of primary school] Madrid: Ediciones Anaya, 1968. (Anaya 8° Primaria 1968)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 456 210 18
Full Text Views 173 54 15
PDF Downloads 118 15 1