Personal Identity and Tory Commercialism in John Campbell’s The Travels and Adventures of Edward Brown (1739)

in Journeys
View More View Less
  • 1 Eastern Washington University mbinney@ewu.edu
Restricted access

Abstract

Critics have argued that a shift toward the “inward” occurred later in eighteenth-century travel writing in part because of earlier questions of credibility. However, John Campbell’s fictional The Travels and Adventures of Edward Brown (1739) focuses upon the “inward” by drawing upon a technique already used in novels—that is, depicting the narrator as a consciousness. Consciousness, or personal identity, derives from John Locke and appears in Campbell’s travel account to demonstrate how circumstances define the narrator’s travel experiences. These circumstances at once establish the credibility of the narrator’s descriptions and also promote Campbell’s Tory commercialism. For the first, the narrator’s consciousness offers a credible account by describing how people live in time and place; for the second, the narrator demonstrates how personal identity and political ideology were attached from the outset, promoting commerce and colonialism through the narrator’s depiction of a nation’s circumstances that produce unique customs and commodities.

Contributor Notes

Matthew W. Binney is a Professor in the Department of English at Eastern Washington University. His research interests include early modern notions of and responses to the foreign in British and European travel accounts and how these inform philosophical and cultural discourse. He is also a Contributing Editor for The Scriblerian. E-mail: mbinney@ewu.edu

Journeys

The International Journal of Travel and Travel Writing

  • Abbattista, Guido. 1990. Commercio, Colonie e Impero alla Vigilia della Rivoluzione Americana. Florence: Olschki.

  • Adams, Percy. 1983. Travel Literature and the Evolution of the Novel. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.

  • Addison, Joseph. 1718. Remarks on Several Parts of Italy, 2nd ed. London. Available in Gale Eighteenth-Century Collections Online.

  • Armitage, David. 1997. “A Patriot for Whom? The Afterlives of Bolingbroke’s Patriot King.Journal of British Studies 36: 397418.

  • Balibar, Étienne. 2013. Identity and Difference: John Locke and the Invention of Consciousness. Ed. Stella Sandford. Trans. Warren Montag. New York: Verso.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Batten, Charles. 1978. Pleasurable Instruction: Form and Convention in Eighteenth-Century Travel Literature. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baugh, Daniel A. 1988. “Great Britain’s ‘Blue-Water’ Policy, 1689–1815.International History Review 10: 3358.

  • Binney, Matthew W. 2015. “The Rhetoric of Travel and Exploration: A New ‘Nature’ and the Other in Early to Mid-Eighteenth-Century English Travel Collections.Revue LISA/LISA e-journal 13. http://doi: 10.4000/lisa.8687.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Binney, Matthew W. 2016. “Interest, Trade and ‘Character and Circumstances’: John Campbell’s (1708–1775) Earlier Work.History of European Ideas 42: 516533.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bohls, Elizabeth. 1995. Women Travel Writers and the Language of Aesthetics, 17161818. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Bohls, Elizabeth. 2005. “Age of Peregrination: Travel Writing and the Eighteenth-Century Novel.” In A Companion to the Eighteenth Century English Novel and Culture, ed. Paula Backscheider and Catherine Ingrassia, 97116. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borsing, Christopher. 2017. Daniel Defoe and the Representation of Personal Identity. London: Routledge.

  • Boyle, Robert. 16651666. “General Heads for a Natural History of a Countrey, Great or Small, Imparted Likewise by Mr. Boyle.Philosophical Transactions 1: 186189.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, John. 1739. The Travels and Adventures of Edward Brown, Esq. London. Available in Gale Eighteenth-Century Collections Online.

  • Campbell, John. 1741. A Concise History of the Spanish America. London. Available in Gale Eighteenth-Century Collections Online.

  • Campbell, John. 1744. Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca, 2 vols. London. Available in Gale Eighteenth-Century Collections Online.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cardinal, Roger. 1997. “Romantic Travel.” In Rewriting the Self: Histories from the Renaissance to the Present, ed. Roy Porter, 135155. London: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carey, Daniel. 2005. Locke, Shaftesbury, and Hutcheson: Contesting Diversity in the Enlightenment and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, Anthony. 1708. An Answer to Mr. Clarke’s Third Defence. London. Available in Gale Eighteenth-Century Collections Online.

  • Cooper, Alix. 2007. Inventing the Indigenous: Local Knowledge and Natural History in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crone, G. R., and R. A. Skelton. 1946. “English Collections of Voyages and Travels, 1625–1846.” In Richard Hakluyt and His Successors, ed. Edward Lynam, 63142, series II, vol.3. London: The Hakluyt Society.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Defoe, Daniel. (1719) 1927. The Life & Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. In The Shakespeare Head Edition of the Novels and Selected Writings of Daniel Defoe, vol. 1. Oxford: Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dettelbach, Michael. 1999. “The Face of Nature: Precise Measurement, Mapping, and Sensibility in the Work of Alexander von Humboldt.Studies in the History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 30: 473504.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duncan, Ian. 1998. “Adam Smith, Samuel Johnson and the Institutions of English.” In The Scottish Invention of English Literature, ed. Robert Crawford, 2754. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elsner, Jas, and Joan-Pau Rubiés. 1999. Voyages and Visions: Towards a Cultural History of Travel. London: Reaktion.

  • Fox, Christopher. 1982. “Locke and the Scriblerians: The Discussion of Identity in Early Eighteenth-Century England.Eighteenth-Century Studies 16 (2): 125.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fox, Christopher. 1988. Locke and the Scriblerians: Identity and Consciousness in Early Eighteenth-Century Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, John. 1710. Lexicon Technicum: Or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, 2nd ed, 2 vols. London. Available in Gale Eighteenth-Century Collections Online.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayden, Judy. 2012. “Intersections and Cross-Fertilization.” In Travel Narratives, the New Science, and Literary Discourse, 15691750, ed. Judy Hayden, 121. Farnham: Ashgate.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodgkins, Christopher. 2002. Reforming Empire: Protestant Colonialism and the Conscience in British Literature. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jardine, Nicholas, James Secord, and Emma Spary, eds. 1996. Cultures of Natural History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Johnson, Donald R. 1976. “Addison in Italy.Modern Language Studies 6: 3236.

  • Johnson, Samuel. 1755. A Dictionary of the English Language, 2 vols. London.

  • Laertius, Diogenes. 1959. Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 2 vols. Trans. Robert D. Hicks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Lamb, Jonathan. 2001. Preserving the Self in the South Seas, 16801840. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Leask, Nigel. 2002. Curiosity and the Aesthetics of Travel Writing, 17701840. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Locke, John. (1689) 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. ed. Peter H. Nidditch. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • MacCormack, Sabine. 1995. “Limits of Understanding.” In America in European Consciousness, 14931750, ed. Karen Kupperman, 79129. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mackie, J. L. 1976. Problems from Locke. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • MacLean, Kenneth. 1962. John Locke and English Literature of the Eighteenth Century. New York: Russell & Russell.

  • Marshall, Peter James, and Glyndwr Williams. 1982. The Great Map of Mankind: Perceptions of New Worlds in the Age of Enlightenment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, Raymond, and John Barresi. 2000. Naturalization of the Soul: Self and Personal Identity in the Eighteenth Century. London: Routledge.

  • Milton, John. 1931. Paradise Lost. In The Works of John Milton, 18 vols. Ed. Frank Allen Patterson. New York: Columbia University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Noonan, Harold W. 2003. Personal Identity, 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

  • Pagden, Anthony. 1993. European Encounters with the New World: From Renaissance to Romanticism. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Pagden, Anthony. 1995. Lords of all the World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and France, c. 1500–c. 1800. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Percy, Carol E. 1996. “‘To Study Nature Rather than Books’: Captain James Cook as Naturalist Observer and Literary Author.Pacific Studies 19: 130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pratt, Mary Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. London: Routledge.

  • Redford, Bruce. 1996. Venice and the Grand Tour. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Rogers, Shef. 2005. “Alternatives to the Novel: Romance, Alchemy, and The Travels and Adventures of Edward Brown, Esq. (1739).” In New Windows on a Woman’s World: Essays for Jocelyn Harris, ed. Colin Gibson and Lisa Marr, 288298. Dunedin: University of Otago.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rooke, Lawrence. 16651666. “Directions for Sea-men, Bound for Far Voyages.Philosophical Transactions 1: 140143.

  • Schleck, Julia. 2012. “Forming Knowledge: Natural Philosophy and English Travel Writing.” In Travel Narratives, the New Science, and Literary Discourse, ed. Judy Hayden, 5369. Farnham: Ashgate.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shapin, Steven, and Simon Schaffer. 1985. Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shuffelton, Frank. 1993. “Endangered History: Character and Narrative in Early American Historical Writing.The Eighteenth Century 34: 221242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sloan, Phillip R. 1990. “Natural History, 1670–1802.” In Companion to the History of Modern Science, ed. R. C. Olby, et al., 295213. London: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stafford, Barbara Maria. 1984. Voyage into Substance: Art, Science, Nature, and the Illustrated Travel Account, 17601840. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stalnaker, Joanna. 2010. The Unfinished Enlightenment: Description in the Age of the Encyclopedia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

  • Taylor, Charles. 1989. Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Thiel, Udo. 1998. “Personal Identity.” In The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Philosophy, ed. Daniel Garber and Michael Ayers, 868912. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, Nicholas. 1994. Colonialism’s Culture: Anthropology, Travel and Government. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Thompson, Carl. 2011. Travel Writing. London: Routledge.

  • Turner, Katherine. 2001. British Travel Writers in Europe, 1750–1800: Authorship, Gender, and National Identity. Burlington: Ashgate.

  • Tuveson, Ernest Lee. 1960. The Imagination as a Means of Grace: Locke and the Aesthetics of Romanticism. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walpole, Horace. 19031905. The Letters of Horace Walpole, 16 vols. ed. Paget Toynbee. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • Warner, Oliver. 1958. English Maritime Writing: Hakluyt to Cook. London: Longmans & Green.

  • Watt, Ian. 1957. The Rise of the Novel. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Wertz, Spencer, and Linda Wertz. 1975. “Some Correlations Between Swift’s Gulliver and Locke on Personal Identity.Journal of Thought 10: 262271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 24 24 2
Full Text Views 32 32 0
PDF Downloads 26 26 0