Food Movement between Autonomy and Coproduction of Public Policies

Lessons from Madrid

in Nature and Culture
View More View Less
  • 1 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid m.simon@upm.es
  • 2 University of Córdoba inesemeve@gmail.com
  • 3 Complutense University of Madrid jsanzlan@ucm.es
Restricted access

Abstract

In the aftermath of the economic crisis, the food geography in the city of Madrid is being transformed. The urban unemployed began to engage in agriculture in periurban areas, creating new alliances between producers and consumers. The alternative food movement organized on the fringe gave way to agroecological civic platforms that are highly assertive, and a dialogue with political institutions has opened. A key moment in the advance of this proactive attitude came about in the municipal elections of May 2015. Activists ascended to positions of political power, the backdrop of the Milan Urban Food Policy Pact created an opportunity for the food movement to move from protest to program, and public policies were permeated by agroecological principles.

Contributor Notes

Marian Simon-Rojo is an architect, has a PhD in urban and regional planning, and is an adjunct professor at the Department of Urban and Regional Planning (Faculty of Architecture, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid). She was a participant in the COST Action Urban Agriculture Europe, 2012–2016. Marian is involved in master planning and has participated in various research projects on urbanism, agriculture, food systems, and public participation. She takes part in an integral food cooperative and in Madrid AgroEcológico. E-mail: m.simon@upm.es

Ines Morales Bernardos is a forest engineer and specialist in agroecology and organic farming. She is currently conducting a PhD at the Institute of Sociology and Peasant Studies (ISEC), University of Córdoba, Spain. She researches agroecologist urban movements in times of crisis, with case studies in Madrid, Athens, and Lisbon. As an activist, she has been involved in several agroecologist movements across Europe. E-mail: inesemeve@gmail.com

Jon Sanz Landaluze holds a doctorate in chemistry, analytical specialty, from the Basque Country University. Later he obtained a postdoctoral fellowship at the Complutense University of Madrid. Since 2005 he has been a professor at the university and participates in research on the determination of pollutant organic compounds and metal speciation in food and environmental samples. He has been one of the promoters of HuertAula Cantarranas since its inception in 2010 and participates in various agroecological projects in Madrid. E-mail: jsanzlan@ucm.es

  • Allen, Patricia, Margaret Fitz Simmons, Michael Goodman, and Keith Warner. 2003. “Shifting Plates in the Agrifood Landscape: The Tectonics of Alternative Agrifood Initiatives in California”. Journal of Rural Studies 19 (1): 6175. doi:10.1016/S0743-0167(02)00047-5.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Altieri, Miguel A. and Víctor Manuel Toledo. 2011. “The Agroecological Revolution in Latin America: Rescuing Nature, Ensuring Food Sovereignty and Empowering Peasants”. The Journal of Peasant Studies 38: 587612. doi:10.1080/03066150.2011.582947.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benito, Cristina de. 2016. “La alimentación como práctica política cotidiana: Análisis antropológico social de los grupos de consumo ecológico” [Food as a daily political practice: Social anthropological analysis of ecological consumption groups]. PhD diss., Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Calle Collado, Ángel, Marta Soler Montiel, and Marta Rivera Ferre. 2010. “Soberanía alimentaria y Agroecología Emergente: La democracia alimentaria” [Food sovereignty and emerging agroecology: Food democracy). In Aproximaciones a la democracia radical, by Ángel Calle Collado. 213238. Barcelona: Icaria.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cuéllar, Mamen, Angel Calle, and David Gallar. 2013. Procesos hacia la soberanía alimentaria: Perspectivas y prácticas desde la agroecología política [Processes towards food sovereignty: Perspectives and practices from political agroecology). Barcelona: Icaria.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diani, Mario. 1992. “The Concept of Social Movement”. Sociological Review 40 (1): 125. doi:10.1111/j.1467-954X.1992.tb02943.x.

  • Dinerstein, Ana Cecilia. 2015. The Politics of Autonomy in Latin America: The Art of Organising Hope. UK: Palgrave MacMillan.

  • Eurostat. 2016. Youth Unemployment Rate in Europe (EU Member States). https://www.statista.com/statistics/266228/youth-unemployment-rate-in-eu-countries/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fernández Casadevante, José Luis, and Nerea Morán Alonso. 2015. Raíces en el asfalto: Pasado, presente y futuro de la agricultura urbana [Roots in the asphalt: Past, present and future of urban agriculture]. Madrid: Libros en Acción.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fitzgerald, David. 2000. “Negotiating Extra-Territorial Citizenship: Mexican Migration and the Transnational Politics of Community”. Monograph No. 2: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. University of California, San Diego.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friedmann, Harriet, and Philip McMichael. 1989. “Agriculture and the State System: The Rise and Fall of National Agricultures, 1870 to the Present”. Sociologia Ruralis 29 (2): 93117. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9523.1989.tb00360.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gliessman, Steve. 2013. “Agroecology: Growing the Roots of Resistance”. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37 (1): 1931. doi:10.1080/10440046.2012.734264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • González de Molina, Manuel. 1996. “Prólogo” [Prologue]. In La evolución de la agricultura en España (1940–1990), by Jose Manuel Naredo, 348. Granada: Universidad de Granada.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holt-Giménez, Eric, and Annie Shattuck. 2011. “Food Crises, Food Regimes and Food Movements: Rumblings of Reform or Tides of Transformation?The Journal of Peasant Studies 38 (1): 109144. doi:10.1080/03066150.2010.538578.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levidow, Les, Michel Pimbert, and Gaetan Vanloqueren. 2014. “Agroecological Research: Conforming or Transforming the Dominant Agro-Food Regime?Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 38 (10): 11271155. doi:10.1080/21683565.2014.951459.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Llobera, Pablo. 2014. “Horticultura Urbana: La Red de Huertos Urbanos comunitarios de Madrid” [Urban horticulture: The Network of Community Urban Gardens in Madrid]. Ambienta: La revista del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente 107: 120128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Llobera Serra, Franco, and Marian Simon-Rojo. 2014. “TERRAE Municipal Network: Boosting the Local Economy”. Urban Agriculture Magazine, no. 28: 2628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lohrberg, Frank, and Marian Simon-Rojo. 2016. “Mapping Urban Agriculture in Europe.” In Urban Agriculture Europe, ed. Frank Lohrberg, Lily Licka, Lionella Scazzosi, and Axel Timpe, 194200. Berlin: Jovis Verlag.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • López García, Daniel, and Marc Badal Pijuan. 2006. Con los pies en la tierra: Reflexiones y experiencias hacia un movimiento agroecológico [With the feet on the ground: Reflections and experiences towards an agroecological movement]. Madrid: Virus Editorial.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • López García, Daniel, and Jose Angel López López. 2003. Con la comida no se juega: Alternativas autogestionadas a la globalización capitalista desde la agroecología y el consumo [Do not play with food: Self-managed alternatives to capitalist globalization from agroecology and consumption]. Madrid: Traficantes de Sueños.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • López Izquierdo, Nieves. 2016. “Las grietas cultivadas de la ciudad modelo huertos urbanos y movimientos sociales en la Barcelona del siglo XXI” [The cultivated cracks of the model city: Urban gardens and social movements in the Barcelona of the 21st century]. Paper presented at the international conference “From CONTESTED_CITIES to Global Urban Justice” June, 2016, Madrid, Spain.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martínez-Torres, María Elena, and Peter M. Rosset. 2010. “La Vía Campesina: The Birth and Evolution of a Transnational Social Movement”. Journal of Peasant Studies 37 (1): 149175. doi:10.1080/03066150903498804.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mayer, Margit. 2013. “First World Urban Activism”. City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action 17 (1): 519. doi:10.1080/13604813.2013.757417.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McMichael, Phillip. 2000. “Global Food Politics.” In Hungry for Profit: The Agribusiness Threat to Farmers, Food, and the Environment, ed. Fred Magdoff, John Bellamy Foster, and Frederick H. Buttel, 125144. New York: Monthly Review Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McMichael, Phillip. 2005. “Global Development and the Corporate Food Regime.” In New Directions in the Sociology of Global Development, Research in Rural Sociology and Development 11, ed. Frederick H. Buttel and Phillip McMichael, 265299.Bingley, West Yorkshire. Emerald Group Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morales Bernardos, Inés. 2017. “Building New Solidarities Between Movements: Insurrectionary Politics of Food Autonomy in the City of Athens”. Open Democracy/ISA RC-47: Open Movements, 6 April. https://opendemocracy.net/ines-morales-bernardos/building-new-solidarities-between-movements-insurrectionary-politics-of-food.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morales Bernardos, Inés, Jon Sanz Landaluze, Britta. Baumgarten, and Mamen Cuéllar Padilla. 2016. “Processes of Food Autonomy Radicalization in Urban Spaces Under Austerity (Madrid)”. Paper presented at the international conference “From CONTESTED_CITIES to Global Urban Justice” June 2016 Madrid, Spain. ISSN 2341-2755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nyéléni Declaration. 2007. “Declaration of the Forum for Food Sovereignty.” https://nyeleni.org/spip.php?article290.

  • Pastor, Jaime. 2011. “El Movimiento 15-M: Un nuevo actor sociopolítico frente a la dictadura de los mercados” [The 15-M Movement: A new socio-political actor against the dictatorship of the markets]. Sociedad y utopía 38: 109124. ISSN 1133-6706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosset, Peter M., and María Elena Martínez-Torres. 2010. “Food Sovereignty and Agroecology in the Convergence of Rural Social Movements.” In Alternative Agrifood Movements: Patterns of Convergence and Divergence, Research in Rural Sociology and Development 21, ed. Douglas Constance, Marie-Christine Renard, and Marta Rivera-Ferre, 137157. Emerald Group Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosset, Peter M., and María Elena Martínez-Torres. 2012. “Rural Social Movements and Agroecology: Context, Theory, and Process”. Ecology and Society 17 (3): 1729. doi:10.5751/ES-05000-170317.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosset, Peter M., Braulio Machín Sosa, Adilén María Roque Jaime, and Dana Rocío Ávila Lozano. 2011. “The Campesino-to-Campesino Agroecology Movement of ANAP in Cuba: Social Process Methodology in the Construction of Sustainable Peasant Agriculture and Food Sovereignty”. The Journal of Peasant Studies 38 (1): 161191. doi:10.1080/03066150.2010.538584.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sama Acebedo, Sara. 2016. “El huerto del barrio: Apropiación vecinal del espacio público” [The garden in the neighbourhood: Neighbourhood appropriation of public space]. Paper presented at the international conference “From CONTESTED_CITIES to Global Urban Justice” June 2016 Madrid, Spain. ISSN 2341-2755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sassen, Saskia. 1984. “The New Labor Demand in Global Cities.” In Cities in Transformation, ed. Michael Peter Smith, 139171. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sevilla Guzmán, Eduardo, Gloria Guzmán Casado, Juan Morales, and Equipo ISEC. 1996. “La acción social colectiva en agroecología: Agricultura ecológica y desarrollo rural” [Collective social action in agroecology: Ecological agriculture and rural development]. Paper presented at the 2nd Congreso dela Sociedad Española de Agricultura Ecológica, Pamplona-Iruña, September.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sevilla Guzmán, Eduardo, and Graham Woodgate. 1997. “Sustainable Rural Development: From Industrial Agriculture to Agroecology.” In The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology, ed. Michael R. Redclift and Graham Woodgate, 9394. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sevilla Guzmán, Eduardo, and Graham Woodgate. 2013. “Agroecology: Foundations”. Agrarian Social Thought and Sociological Theory, Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37 (1): 3244. doi:10.1080/10440046.2012.695763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simon-Rojo, Marian, Xavier Recasens, Sonia Callau, Barbora Duží, Sebastian Eiter, Verónica Hernández-Jiménez, Patricia Kettle, et al. 2016. “From Urban Food Gardening to Urban Farming.” In Lohrberg et al., Urban Agriculture Europe, 2228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simon-Rojo, Marian. 2017. “El consumo desde lo colectivo: Lectura en clave de sostenibilidad” [Consumption with a collective approach. Reading with a sustainable lens]. Soberanía alimentaria, biodiversidad y culturas 27: 3538.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stavrides, Stavros. 2014. “Emerging Common Spaces as a Challenge to the City of Crisis”. City 18 (4–5): 546550. doi:10.1080/13604813.2014.939476.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taibo, Carlos. 2013. “The Spanish Indignados: A Movement with Two Souls”. European Urban and Regional Studies 20 (1): 155158. doi:0.1177/0969776412459846.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Talón Villacanas, Alba, and Teresa de la Fuente Espinosa. 2016. “La autogestión como práctica emancipadora: Análisis de dos experiencias de la ciudad de Valencia” [Self-managment as emancipatory practice: Analysis of two experiences of the city of Valencia]. Paper presented at the international conference “From CONTESTED_CITIES To Global Urban Justice” June 2016 Madrid, Spain. ISSN 2341-2755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Toledo, Victor Manuel. 1990. “La resistencia ecológica del campesinado mexicano” [The ecological resistance of the mexican peasantry]. In Revista ecología política: Cuadernos de debate internacional: 1118. Madrid: Fuhem/Icaria.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van der Ploeg, Jan Douwe. 2009. The New Peasantries: Struggles for Autonomy and Sustainability in an Era of Empire and Globalization. London: Earthscan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiskerke, Han. 2009. “On Places Lost and Places Regained: Reflections on the Alternative Food Geography and Sustainable Regional Development”. International Planning Studies 14 (4): 369387. doi:10.1080/13563471003642803.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 73 73 14
Full Text Views 38 38 0
PDF Downloads 25 25 0