Rethinking Adaptation

Emotions, Evolution, and Climate Change

in Nature and Culture
Restricted access

Abstract

Understanding that climate change poses considerable threats for social systems, to which we must adapt in order to survive, social responses to climate change should be viewed in the context of evolution, which entails the variation, selection, and retention of information. Digging deeper into evolutionary theory, however, emotions play a surprisingly prominent role in adaptation. This article offers an explicitly historical, nondirectional conceptualization of our potential evolutionary pathways in response to climate change. Emotions emerge from the intersection of culture and biology to guide the degree of variation of knowledge to which we have access, the selection of knowledge, and the retention of that knowledge in new (or old) practices. I delve into multiple fields of scholarship on emotions, describing several important considerations for understanding social responses to climate change: emotions are shared, play a central role in decision-making, and simultaneously derive from past evolutionary processes and define future evolutionary processes.

Contributor Notes

Debra J. Davidson is Professor of Environmental Sociology at the University of Alberta, Canada. Her key areas of teaching and research include impacts and adaptation to climate change, and crises and transitions in food and energy systems. She was a lead author in Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report. Her work is featured in several journals, including Science, Nature, Global Environmental Change, Society & Natural Resources, International Sociology, and Sociological Inquiry. She is the co-editor of The Oxford Handbook of Energy and Society (2018); Environment and Society (2018); and co-author of Challenging Legitimacy at the Precipice of Energy Calamity (2011). Email: ddavidso@ualberta.ca

  • AlshamsiAamenaFabio PianesiBruno LepriAlex Pentland and Iyad Rahwan. 2015. “Beyond Contagion: Reality Mining Reveals Complex Patterns of Social Influence”. PLoS ONE 10 (8): e0135740. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135740.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AndrewsJeffrey and Debra J. Davidson. 2013. “Cell-Gazing Into the Future: What Genes, Homo Heidelbergensis, and Punishment Tell Us About Our Adaptive Capacity”. Sustainability 5: 560569. https://doi.org/10.3390/su5020560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bar-TalDanielEran Halperin and Joseph de Rivera. 2007. “Collective Emotions in Conflict Situations: Societal Implications”. Journal of Social Issues 63 (2): 441460. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00518.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BartleyWilliam W. III. 1987. “Philosophy of Biology Versus Philosophy of Physics”. In Radnitsky and Popper 1987: 746.

  • BecharaAntoineSara Dolan and Andrea Hindes. 2002. “Decision-Making and Addiction (Part II): Myopia for the Future or Hypersensitivity to Reward?Neuropsychologia 40 (10): 16901705. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3932(02)00016-7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BeckerErnest. 1973. The Denial of Death. New York: Simon & Schuster.

  • BericatEduardo. 2016. “The Sociology of Emotions: Four Decades of Progress”. Current Sociology 64 (3): 491513. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392115588355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BerryBonnie. 1999. Social Rage: Emotion and Cultural Conflict. New York: Garland Publishing.

  • BianchiAlison J.Alexander M. RuchMichael J. Ritter and Ji Hye Kim. 2016. “Emotion Management: Unexpected Research Opportunities”. Sociology Compass 10 (2): 172183. https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12340.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BloomPaul. 2016. “Empathy and Its Discontents”. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 21 (1): 2431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2016.11.004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BoydRichard and Peter J. Richerson. 1985. Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • BraithwaiteValerie. 2004. “Collective Hope”. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 592 (1): 615. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716203262049.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BregginPeter R. 2016. “The Biological Evolution of Guilt, Shame and Anxiety: A New Theory of Negative Legacy Emotions”. Medical Hypotheses 85 (1): 1724. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2015.03.015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrickCameron and Calvin K. Lai. 2018. “Putting the ‘I’ in Environmentalist: Explicit (but Not Implicit) Identity Predicts Pro-environmental Action”. Journal of Environmental Psychology post-print 16 July. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/FW8T2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BroschTobias and David Sander. 2014. “Appraising Value: The Role of Universal Core Values and Emotions in Decision-Making”. Cortex 59: 203205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.03.012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BurkePeter J. and Jan E. Stets. 2009. Identity Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • BurkittIan. 2002. “Complex Emotions: Relations, Feelings and Images in Emotional Experience.” In Emotions and Sociology ed. Jack Barbalet151168. Oxford: Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BurkittIan. 2014. Emotions and Social Relations. London: Sage.

  • CacioppoJohn T.Louise C. HawkelyJohn M. ErnstMary BurlesonGary G. BernstonBita Nouriani and David Spiegel. 2006. “Loneliness within a Nomological Net: An Evolutionary Perspective”. Journal of Research in Personality 40 (6): 10541085. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.11.007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CampbellDonald T. 1987. “Evolutionary Epistemology”. In Radnitsky and Popper 1987: 4790.

  • ChapmanDaniel A.Adam CornerRobin Webster and Ezra M. Markowitz. 2016. “Climate Visuals: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Public Perceptions of Climate Images in Three Countries”. Global Environmental Change 41: 172182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.10.003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChapmanDaniel A.Brian Lickel and Ezra M. Markowitz. 2017. “Reassessing Emotion in Climate Change Communication”. Nature Climate Change 7: 848852. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-017-0021-9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CikaraMina and Jay J. Van Bavel. 2014. “The Neuroscience of Intergroup Relations: An Integrative Review”. Perspectives in Psychological Sciences 9 (3): 245274. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691614527464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CollettJessica L. and Omar Lizardo. 2010. “Occupational Status and the Experience of Anger”. Social Forces 88 (5): 20792104.

  • CoteStephanie A.H. C. RossKarine David and Sarah E. Wolfe. 2017. “Walkerton Revisited: How Our Psychological Defenses May Influence Responses to Water Crises”. Ecology and Society 22 (3): art. 32. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-09616-220332.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CovielloLorenzoYunkyu SohnAdam D. I. KramerCameron MarlowMassimo FranceschettiNicholas A. Christakis and James H. Fowler. 2014. “Detecting Emotional Contagion in Massive Social Networks”. PLoS ONE 9(3): e90315. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DamásioAntonio R. 1994. Descartes’ Error: Emotion Reason and the Human Brain. New York: G. P. Putnam.

  • DavidsonDebra J. 2018. “Emotion, Reflexivity and Social Change in the Era of Extreme Fossil Fuels”. British Journal of Sociology first published 9 May. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DezecacheGuillaumePierre Jacob and Julie Grezes. 2015. “Emotional Contagion: Its Scope and Limits”. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (6): 297299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2015.03.011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De JaegherHanneAnssi Perakyla and Melisa Stevanovic. 2016. “The Co-creation of Meaningful Action: Bridging Enaction and Interactional Sociology”. Philosophical Transactions B 371 (1693): art. 20150378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De RiveraJoseph. 1992. “Emotional Climate: Social Structure and Emotional Dynamics.” In International Review of Studies on Emotion vol. 2 ed. Kenneth T. Strongman197218. Chichester: Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De RiveraJoseph and Carmen Grinkis. 1986. “Emotions as Social Relationships”. Motivation and Emotion 10 (4): 351369.

  • De RiveraJoseph and Dario Páez. 2007. “Emotional Climate, Human Security, and Cultures of Peace”. Journal of Social Issues 63 (2): 23325. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00506.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeltonAndrew W. and Theresa E. Robertson. 2016. “How the Mind Makes Welfare Tradeoffs: Evolution, Computation, and Emotion”. Current Opinion in Psychology 7: 1216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.06.006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DevosThierryLisa A. SilverDiane M. Mackie and Eliot R. Smith. 2002. “Experiencing Intergroup Emotions.” In From Prejudice to Intergroup Emotions: Differentiated Reactions to Social Groups ed. Diane M. Mackie and Eliot R. Smith111134. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DietzThomas and Tom R. Burns. 1992. “Human Agency and the Evolutionary Dynamics of Culture”. Acta Sociologica 35 (3): 187200. https://doi.org/10.1177/000169939203500302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DörriesMatthias. 2010. “Climate Catastrophes and Fear”. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 1 (6): 885890. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.79.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DunlapRiley E. and William R. Catton. 1995. “Struggling with Human Exemptionalism: The Rise, Decline and Revitalization of Environmental Sociology”. American Sociologist 25 (1): 530. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02691936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DurkheimÉmile. (1912) 2001. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • EdelmanGerald M. 1989. The Remembered Present. New York: Basic Books.

  • FieldingKelly S. and Matthew J. Hornsey. 2016. “A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities”. Frontiers in Psychology 7 (121): 112. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FowlkesMartha R. and Patricia Y. Miller. 1987. “Chemicals and Community at Love Canal.” In The Social and Cultural Construction of Risk: Essays on Risk Selection and Perception ed. Branden B. Johnson and Vincent T. Covello5578. Dordrecht: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FoxNik J. 2015. “Emotions, Affects and the Production of Social Life”. British Journal of Sociology 66 (2): 301318. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FreudenburgWilliam R. and Margaret Alario. 2007. “Weapons of Mass Distraction: Magicianship, Misdirection, and the Dark Side of Legitimation”. Sociological Forum 22 (2): 146173. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1573-7861.2007.00011.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FreundPeter E. S. 2008. “The Expressive Body: A Common Ground for the Sociology of Emotions and Health and Illness”. Sociology of Health and Illness 12 (4): 452477. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11340419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FrijdaNico H. 2016. “The Evolutionary Emergence of What We Call ‘Emotions.’Cognition and Emotion 30 (4): 609620. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2016.1145106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GalleseVittorio and Corrado Sinigaglia. 2011. “What Is So Special about Embodied Simulation?Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (11): 512519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2011.09.003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GiddensAnthony. 1982. “Reason Without Revolution? Habermas‘s ‘Theorie des Kommunikativen Handelns.’Praxis International 2 (3): 318338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GouldStephen J. 1987. An Urchin in the Storm. New York: W. W. Norton.

  • GrodalStine and Nina Granqvist. 2014. “Great Expectations: Discourse and Affect During Field Emergence.” In Emotions and the Organizational Fabric ed. Neal M. AshkanasyWilfred J. Zerbe and Charmine E. J. Hätel139166. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GuilloryJohnJason SpiegelMolly DrislaneBenjamin WeissWalter Donner and Jeffrey Hancock. 2011. “Upset Now? Emotion Contagion in Distributed Groups”. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems745748. Vancouver: ACM.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HartP. Sol and Erik C. Nisbet. 2012. “Boomerang Effects in Science Communication: How Motivated Reasoning and Identity Cues Amplify Opinion Polarization about Climate Mitigation Policies”. Communication Research 39 (6): 701723. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650211416646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HatfieldElaineJohn T. Cacioppo and Richard L. Rapson. 1994. Emotional Contagion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • HathawayMark D. 2017. “Overcoming Fear, Denial, Myopia, and Paralysis: Scientific and Spiritual Insights into the Emotional Factors Affecting our Response to the Ecological Crisis”. Worldviews 21 (2): 175193. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685357‐02002100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HeSaikeXiaolong ZhengDaniel ZengChuan Luo and Zhu Zhang. 2016. “Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media”. PLoS ONE 11 (3): e0150630. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150630.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HuyQuy N. 1999. “Emotional Capability, Emotional Intelligence, and Radical Change”. Academy of Management Review 24 (2): 325345. https://doi.org/10.2307/259085.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IacoboniMarco. 2008. Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

  • Immordino-YangMary H. and Antonio Damásio. 2007. “We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affective and Social Neuroscience to Education”. Mind Brain Education 1 (1): 310. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-228x.2007.00004.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JasperJames M. 2011. “Emotions and Social Movements: Twenty Years of Theory and Research”. Annual Review of Sociology 37: 285303. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-081309-150015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KahnemanDaniel. 2011. Thinking Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

  • KeltnerDacherDeborah H. Gruenfeld and Cameron Anderson. 2003. “Power, Approach, and Inhibition”. Psychological Review 110 (2): 265284. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.110.2.265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KemperTheodore D. 1991. “Predicting Emotions from Social Relations”. Social Psychology Quarterly 54 (4): 330342. https://doi.org/10.2307/2786845.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KoelschStefanArthur M. JacobsWinfried MenninghausKatja LiebalGisela Klann-DeliusChristian von Scheve and Gunter Gebauer. 2015. “The Quartet Theory of Human Emotions: An Integrative and Neurofunctional Model”. Physics of Life Reviews 13: 127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2015.03.001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LamontMichèle and Virág Molnár. 2002. “The Study of Boundaries in the Social Sciences”. Annual Review of Sociology 28: 167195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LawlerEdward J. 2002. “Micro Social Orders”. Social Psychology Quarterly 65 (1): 417.

  • LawlerEdward J.Shane R. Thye and Jeongkoo Yoon. 2008. “Social Exchange and Micro Social Order”. American Sociological Review 73 (4): 519542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeDouxJoseph E. 2002. Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. London: Penguin.

  • LeDouxJoseph E. 2012. “Rethinking the Emotional Brain”. Neuron Perspective 73 (4): 653676. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.02.004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LuHand and Jonathon P. Schuldt. 2015. “Exploring the Role of Incidental Emotions in Support for Climate Change Policy”. Climatic Change 131 (4): 719726. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1443-x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MackieDiane M.Thierry Devos and Eliot R. Smith. 2000. “Intergroup Emotions: Explaining Offensive Action Tendencies in an Intergroup Context”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79 (4): 602616. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.79.4.602.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MannMichael. 2016. “Have Human Societies Evolved? Evidence from History and Pre-history”. Theory and Society 45 (3): 203237. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11186-016-9269-8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McLaughlinPaul. 2011. “Climate Change, Adaptation, and Vulnerability: Reconceptualizing Societal-Environment Interaction within a Socially Constructed Adaptive Landscape”. Organization and Environment 24 (3): 269291. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1086026611419862.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McLaughlinPaul. 2012. “The Second Darwinian Revolution: Steps toward a New Evolutionary Environmental Sociology”. Nature and Culture 7 (3): 231258. https://doi.org/10.3167/nc.2012.070301.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McLaughlinPaul and Thomas Dietz. 2008. “Structure, Agency, and Environment: Toward an Integrated Perspective on Vulnerability”. Global Environmental Change 18 (1): 99111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.05.003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MengesJochen I. and Martin Kilduff. 2015. “Group Emotions: Cutting the Gordian Knots Concerning Terms, Levels of Analysis, and Processes”. Academy of Management Annals 9 (1): 845928. https://doi.org/10.1080/19416520.2015.1033148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MyersTeresa A.Matthew C. NisbetEdward W. Maibach and Anthony A. Leiserowitz. 2012. “A Public Health Frame Arouses Hopeful Emotions about Climate Change”. Climatic Change 113 (34): 11051112. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-012-0513-6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NakahashiWataru and Hisashi Ohtsuki. 2016. “When Is Emotional Contagion Adaptive?Journal of Theoretical Biology 380: 480488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.06.014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Odling-SmeeJohn FKevin Laland and Marcus W. Feldman. 2003. Niche Construction: The Neglected Process in Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OreskesNaomi and Erik M. Conway. 2013. “The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View from the Future”. Daedalus 142 (1): 4058. https://doi.org/10.1162/DAED_a_00184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PagelMark. 2012. Wired for Culture: Origins of the Human Social Mind. New York: W.W. Norton.

  • ParkerJohn N. and Edward J. Hackett. 2012. “Hot Spots and Hot Moments in Scientific Collaborations and Social Movements”. American Sociological Review 77 (1): 2144. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122411433763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RadnitskyGerard and Karil R. Popper eds. 1987. Evolutionary Epistemology Rationality and the Sociology of Knowledge. Chicago: Open Court Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RichersonPeter J. and Robert Boyd. 2005. Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RizzolattiGiacomo and Corrado Sinigaglia. 2007. “Mirror Neurons and Motor Intentionality”. Functional Neurology 22 (4): 205210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RoeserSabine. 2012. “Risk Communication, Public Engagement, and Climate Change: A Role for Emotions”. Risk Analysis 32 (6): 10331040. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01812.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SandersonStephen. 1995. Social Transformations: A General Theory of Historical Development. Oxford: Blackwell.

  • SchiemanScott. 2006. “Anger.” In Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions ed. Jan E. Stets and Jonathan H. Turner493515. Boston: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchwartzShalom H. and Wolfgang Bilsky. 1990. “Toward a Theory of the Universal Content and Structure of Values: Extensions and Cross-Cultural Replications”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58(5): 878891. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.58.5.878.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SI (Smithsonian Institution). 2018. “Homo Sapiens”. Last updated 10 July. http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/homo-sapiens.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith-LovinLynn and Peggy A. Thoits. 2014. “Introduction to the Special Section on the Sociology of Emotions”. Emotion Review 6 (3): 187188. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073914524325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SolakNevinJohn T. JostNebi Sümer and Gerald L. Clore. 2012. “Rage against the Machine: The Case for System-Level Emotions”. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 6 (9): 674690. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00456.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StefanoGeorge B. 2016. “Cognition Regulated by Emotional Decision Making”. Medical Science Monitor Basic Research 22: 15. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSMBR.897194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SternPaul C. and Thomas Dietz. 1994. “The Value Basis of Environmental Concern”. Journal of Social Issues 50 (3): 6584. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb02420.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SternPaul C.John H. PerkinsRichard E. Sparks and Robert A. Knox. 2016. “The Challenge of Climate-Change Neoskepticism”. Science 353 (6300): 653654. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf6675.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StetsJan E. and Michael J. Carter. 2012. “A Theory of the Self for the Sociology of Morality”. American Sociological Review 77 (1): 120140. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122411433762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StrykerSheldon. 2004. “Integrating Emotion into Identity Theory”. Advances in Group Processes 21: 123. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0882-6145(04)21001-3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Summers-EfflerErikaJustin Van Ness and Christopher Hausmann. 2015. “Peeking in the Black Box: Studying, Theorizing, and Representing the Micro-Foundations of Day-to-Day Interactions”. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 44 (4): 450479. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891241614545880.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SupranGeoffrey and Naomi Oreskes. 2017. “Assessing ExxonMobil’s Climate Change Communications (1977–2014)”. Environmental Research Letters 12 (8): art. 084019. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa815f.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SzantoThomas. 2015. “Collective Emotions, Normativity, and Empathy: A Steinian Account”. Human Studies 38 (4): 503527. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10746-015-9350-8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SznycerDanielJohn ToobyLeda CosmidesRoni PoratShaul Shalvi and Eran Halperin. 2016. “Shame Closely Tracks the Threat of Devaluation by Others, Even Across Cultures”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (10): 26252630. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1514699113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ThompsonEvan. 2007. Mind in Life: Biology Phenomenology and the Science of Mind. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

  • VaianiCheryl E. 2009. “Personal Conscience and the Problem of Moral Certitude”. Nursing Clinics of North America 44 (4): 407414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2009.07.008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van StekelenburgJacquelien and Bert Klandermans. 2013. “The Social Psychology of Protest”. Current Sociology Review 61 (56): 886905. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392113479314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VerweijMarcoTimothy J. SeniorJuan F. Domínguez D and Robert Turner. 2015. “Emotion, Rationality, and Decision-Making: How to Link Affective and Social Neuroscience with Social Theory”. Frontiers in Neuroscience 9: art. 332. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2015.00332.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Von ScheveChristian and Sven Ismer. 2013. “Towards a Theory of Collective Emotions”. Emotion Review 5 (4): 406413. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073913484170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Von ScheveChristian and Mikko Salmela. 2014. Collective Emotions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • VoronovMaxin and Klaus Weber. 2016. “The Heart of Institutions: Emotional Competence and Institutional Actorhood”. Academy of Management Review 41 (3) 456478. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2013.0458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WächsterhauserGünter. 1987. “Light and Life: On the Nutritional Origins of Sensory Perception.” In Evolutionary Epistemology Rationality and the Sociology of Knowledge ed. Gerard R. W. W. Bartley121138. La Salle, IL: Open Court Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WitteKim and Mike Allen. 2000. “A Meta-Analysis of Fear Appeals: Implications for Effective Public Health Campaigns”. Health Education and Behavior 27(5): 591615. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019810002700506.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YzerbytVincentMuriel DumontDaniel Wigboldus and Ernestine Gordijn. 2003. “I Feel for Us: The Impact of Categorization and Identification on Emotions and Action Tendencies”. British Journal of Social Psychology 42 (4): 533549. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466603322595266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZuoJiping and Robert D. Benford. 1995. “Mobilization Processes and the 1989 Chinese Democracy Movement”. Sociological Quarterly 36(1): 131156. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1995.tb02324.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 23 23 23
Full Text Views 17 17 0
PDF Downloads 16 16 0