The health of migrants as a global peace and security agenda

in Regions and Cohesion
View More View Less
  • 1 Africa University, Zimbabwe nhengud@africau.edu
Restricted access

Abstract

This article is a feminist theoretical examination of the nexus between migrants’ health and gender and attempts to fill the gap between existing gendered health and migration policies. Gender-specific challenges faced by female migrants include poor sexual and reproductive health rights, infant mortality, nutritional disorders, and violence. Non-communicable diseases provoke interruption of care in the absence of suitable health care systems and services. As policy makers struggle to develop suitable migration policies, the needs of women often fall through the cracks. Major findings are that migration policy design from micro to macro levels does not align with ratified international protocols on health, resulting in multiple vulnerabilities of female migrants. The study concludes that bilateral migration policy agreements should be comprehensive, binding, gender-sensitive, and participatory.

Resumen

Este es un examen teórico feminista del nexo entre salud de los migrantes y género, e intenta llenar el vacío entre las políticas existentes de salud y migración de género. Las mujeres migrantes enfrentan desafíos específicos de género incluyendo limitados derechos de salud sexual y reproductiva, mortalidad infantil, trastornos nutricionales y violencia. Las necesidades de las mujeres a menudo se quedan atrás en el desarrollo de políticas de migración adecuadas. Los principales hallazgos son que el diseño de la política de migración de los niveles micro a macro no se alinea con los protocolos internacionales de salud ratificados, resultando en múltiples vulnerabilidades de mujeres migrantes. El estudio concluye que los acuerdos de política bilateral de migración deben ser integrales, vinculantes, sensible al género y participativos.

Résumé

Cet article théorique examine, dans une perspective féministe, les liens entre la santé des migrants et le genre et tente de combler le fossé entre les politiques migratoires et de santé. Les défis spécifiques des femmes migrantes incluent l'accès à la santé sexuelle et reproductive, la mortalité infantile, les troubles nutritionnels et la violence. Leurs besoins sont souvent omis dans l'élaboration des politiques migratoires. Cet article montre que la conception de la politique migratoire à partir d'une échelle micro vers un niveau macro ne correspond pas aux protocoles internationaux ratifiés sur la santé, ce qui entraîne de multiples vulnérabilités des femmes migrantes. Il conclut que les accords bilatéraux en matière de migration doivent être exhaustifs, contraignants, sensibles au genre et participatifs.

Contributor Notes

DUDZIRO NHENGU specializes in governance, gender, peace, and security and is currently studying for a PhD with Africa University. She is lead associate for Gender Associations International Consulting GmbH (GAIC), a Berlin- based consultancy firm. She is also a member of FEMWISE African Union Women Mediators and of Women Mediators across the Commonwealth. She has worked with academic institutions, security sector actors, civil society, international organizations, community women, traditional leaders, youths, and market women for personal empowerment, resilience building, and community relations transformation in sub-Saharan Africa. E-mail: nhengud@africau.edu

Regions and Cohesion

Regiones y Cohesión / Régions et Cohésion

  • Black, J., Dearden, K., & Montes, A. (2017). “Migrant deaths and disappearances worldwide”: 2016 global migration data analysis. GMDAC Data Briefing Series, Issue No. 8, IOM's Global Migration Data Analysis Centre, Berlin.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyd, M. (1991). Immigration and living arrangements: Elderly women in Canada. The International Migration Review 25(1), 427.

  • Butler, J., Gambetti, Z., & Sabsay, L. (2016). Vulnerability in resistance. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

  • Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Sixty-fifth Session (2005). General Recommendation XXX on discrimination against non-citizens, paragraphs 29 & 36. https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CERD/Shared%2520Docyments/1_Global/INT_CERD_GEC_7502_E.doc

  • Constitution of Greece, as revised by resolution dated May 27th, 2008 by the H’ revisionary Parliament Session. Law 4386/2016 (Government Gazette 83 A’/2016): Regulations for Research and other provisions”. https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/legislation-27_en.

  • Grotti, V., Malakasis, C. H., Quagliariello, C., & Sahraoui, N. (2018). Shifting vulnerabilities: Gender and reproductive care on the migrant trail to Europe. Comparative Migration Studies 6(1), 23. doi: 10.1186/s40878-018-0089-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grover, A. (2013). Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Human Rights Council, twenty-third session, agenda item 3, Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to development.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gumà, J., Solé-Auró, A., & Arpino, B. (2019). Examining social determinants of health: the role of education, household arrangements and country groups by gender. BMC Public Health 19(1), 699.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gushulak, B. D., & MacPherson, D. W. (2006). The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence. Emerging Themes Epidemiol 3(3). doi: 10.1186/1742-7622-3-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heymann DL., et al. Global health security: the wider lessons from the West African Ebola virus disease epidemic. Lancet, 2015; 385 (9980): 184901.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hollander, A.C., Bruce, D., Burstrom, B., & Ekblad, S. (2011). Gender-related mental healthdifferences between refugees and non-refugee immigrants: A cross-sectional register-based study. BMC Public Health, 11, 180.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. Adopted by General Assembly resolution 45/158 of 18 December 1990. https://treaties.un.org

  • International Labour Office. CO19 - Equality of Treatment (Accident Compensation) Convention, 1925 (No. 19). https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/labour-migration/standards/lang-en/index.htm.

  • International Labour Office. (1997). C181 - Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 (No. 181). https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en.

  • Italy: Law No. 189 of 2002, Changes in Regulations on the Matter of Immigration and Asylum [Italy], 30 July 2002. Available at: https://www.refworld.org/docid/3fd9cd6d4.html [accessed 21 February 2020].

  • Jackson Lears, T. J. (1985). The concept of cultural hegemony: Problems and possibilities. The American Historical Review 90(3), 567593.

  • Martinez, O., Wu, E., Sandfort, T., Dodge, B., Carballo-Dieguez, A., Pinto, P., Rhodes, S.D., Moya, E., & Chavez-Baray, S. (2016). Evaluating the impact of immigration policies on health status among undocumented immigrants: A systematic review. Journal of Immigrants’ Minor Health 17(3), 947970.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moseneke, A. (2002). The fourth Bram Fischer Memorial lecture: Transformative adjudication. South African Journal of Human Rights 309(3015), 18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

  • Sixty-First World Health Assembly. (2008). Health of migrants resolution (May 24), document WHA61.17.

  • Steel Z, Liddell BJ, Bateman-Steel CR, Zwi AB (2011). Global Protection and the Health Impact of Migration Interception. Plos Med 8(6):e10001038. https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article%3Fid%3D10.1371/journal.pmed.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steward, F. (2016). The dynamics of horizontal inequalities. UNDP Human Development Report Think Piece. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/stewart_layout.pdf.

    • Export Citation
  • United Nations. (2016). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. https://www.sustainabledevelopment.un.orgA/RES/70/1.

    • Export Citation
  • UNAIDS. (2014). The gap report 2014. New York: UNAIDS.

  • United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2008). Refugees and migrants. https://refugeesmigrants.un.org/definitions.

  • United Nations General Assembly. (2011). 65/277, Political declaration on HIV and AIDS: Intensifying our efforts to eliminate HIV and AIDS. Sixty-fifth session, agenda item 10, 95th plenary meeting, June 10, 2011.

  • United Nations General Assembly. (2016). 70/266, Political declaration on HIV and AIDS: On the fast track to accelerating the fight against HIV and to ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030, 97th plenary meeting, June 8, 2016.

  • Williamson, J. G. (2001). Demographic change, economic growth, and inequality. In N. Birdsall, A. C. Kelley, & S. W. Sinding (Eds), Population matters: Demographic change, economic growth, and poverty in the developing world (pp. 106136). New York: Oxford.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organisation. (1946). Preamble to the Constitution of WHO as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19 June – 22 July 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of WHO, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948.

  • World Health Organization. (2007). Indonesia to resume sharing H5N1 avian influenza virus samples following a WHO meeting in Jakarta. Media centre. News releases 2007. https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2007/pr09/en/.

    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization. (2008). Sixty-First World Health Assembly. Health of migrants. WHA61/12, Agenda Item 11.9, para. 17. May 24, 2008. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/23533/1/A61_R17-en.pdf.

  • World Health Organization. (2018). Report on the health of refugees and migrants in the WHO European region: No public health without refugee and migrant health. http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/html/report-on-the-health-of-refugees-and-migrants-in-the-who-european-region-no-public-health-without-refugee-and-migrant-health-2018/en/index.html.

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 102 102 17
Full Text Views 578 578 4
PDF Downloads 73 73 0