Whither the people in the ASEAN Community?

Prospects in regional community building above and below the state

in Regions and Cohesion
View More View Less
  • 1 International Students Inc., USA, and S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore issstan@nut.edu.sg
Restricted access

Abstract

The longstanding effort to develop a people-based regionalism in Southeast Asia has been shaped by an inherent tension between the liberal inclination to privilege the individual and the community under formation, on the one hand, and the realist insistence on the primacy of the state, on the other. This article explores the conditions and constraints affecting ASEAN's progress in remaking Southeast Asia into a people-focused and caring community in three areas: disaster management, development, and democratization (understood here as human rights). Arguably, the persistent gap in Southeast Asia between aspiration and expectation is determined less by political ideology than by the pragmatic responses of ASEAN member states to the forces of nationalism and protectionism, as well as their respective sense of local and regional responsibility.

Resumen

El esfuerzo histórico para desarrollar un regionalismo basado en las personas del sudeste de Asia ha estado marcado por una tensión fundamental entre la inclinación liberal de privilegiar el individuo y la comunidad y la insistencia realista sobre la primacía del estado. Este artículo explora las condiciones y limitaciones que afectan el progreso de la ASEAN en la reestructuración de Asia sudoriental en una comunidad centrada en el cuidado de las personas en: gestión de desastres, desarrollo y democratización (i.e., derechos humanos). La brecha persistente en el sudeste asiático entre la aspiración y la expectativa está determinada por las respuestas pragmáticas de los miembros de la ASEAN sometidos a las fuerzas del nacionalismo y proteccionismo, así como su respectivo sentido de responsabilidad local y regional.

Résumé

L'effort historique pour développer un régionalisme fondé sur les peuples en Asie du Sud-Est a été marqué par une tension fondamentale entre l'inclination libérale qui privilégie, d'une part, l'individu et la communauté et, d'autre part, l'insistance réaliste sur la primauté de l'État. Cet article explore les conditions et les contraintes qui nuisent aux progrès de l'ANASE dans le cadre d'une refonte de l'Asie du Sud-Est en une communauté centrée et attentive aux peuples dans trois domaines : la gestion des désastres, le développement et la démocratisation (en référence aux droits humains). Le fossé persistant en Asie du Sud-Est entre les aspirations et les attentes est vraisemblablement moins déterminé par l'idéologie politique que par les réponses pragmatiques des États membres de l'ANASE soumis aux forces du nationalisme et du protectionnisme ainsi que par leur sens respectif de la responsabilité locale et régionale.

Contributor Notes

SEE SENG TAN is president and CEO of International Students Inc. (ISI), a faith-based nonprofit based in the United States, and concurrently professor of international relations at the Nanyang Technological University's S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) in Singapore. His latest books include The responsibility to provide in Southeast Asia: Towards an ethical explanation (Bristol University Press, 2019) and The legal authority of ASEAN as a security institution (Cambridge University Press, 2019). ORCID: 0000-0002-0363-5082. E-mail: issstan@ntu.edu.sg

Regions and Cohesion

Regiones y Cohesión / Régions et Cohésion

  • Acharya, A. (2003). Democratization and the prospects for participatory regionalism in Southeast Asia. Third World Quarterly 24(2), 375390.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Acharya, A. (2004). How ideas spread: Whose norms matter? Norm localization and institutional change in Asian regionalism. International Organization 58(2), 239275.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AHA Centre. (2017). AJDRP: ASEAN joint disaster response plan. Jakarta: The ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on Disaster Management (AHA Centre).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ASEAN. (2003). Declaration of ASEAN Concord II (Bali Concord II), October 7. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

  • ASEAN. (2007, January 13). Report of the eminent persons group of the ASEAN charter. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

  • ASEAN. (2009a, October 23). Chan-Am Hua Hin declaration on the intergovernmental commission on human rights. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ASEAN. (2009b, July 20). Terms of reference of ASEAN intergovernmental commission on human rights. Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ASEAN. (2015a, April 27). Kuala Lumpur declaration on a people-oriented, people-centered ASEAN. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

  • ASEAN. (2015b). ASEAN 2025: Forging ahead together. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

  • ASEAN. (2016a). ASEAN socio-cultural community blueprint. Jakarta: ASEAN Sec-retariat.

  • ASEAN. (2016b). ASEAN political-security community blueprint. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

  • ASEAN. (2016c). ASEAN economic community blueprint. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

  • ASEAN Information Center. (2016, March 8). Between the people-oriented and people-centered ASEAN Community? Bangkok: The Government Public Relations Department. http://www.aseanthai.net/english/ewt_news.php?nid=1005&filename = index (accessed on May 16, 2020).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Asplund, A. (2014). ASEAN intergovernmental commission on human rights: Civil society organizations’ limited influence on ASEAN. Journal of Asian Public Policy 7(2), 191199.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balcaite, I. (2016). “When ASEAN comes”: In search of a people-centered ASEAN Economic Community in Greater Mekong borderscapes. SOJOURN: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 31(3), 880921.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ball, D. (2000). The council for security cooperation in the Asia Pacific (CSCAP): Its record and its prospects. Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defense 139. Canberra, ACT: Strategic and Defense Studies, Australian National University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beeson, M. (2009). ASEAN's ways: Still fit for purpose? Cambridge Review of International Affairs 22(3), 333343.

  • Bellamy, A. J., & Drummond, C. (2011). The responsibility to protect in Southeast Asia: Between noninterference and sovereignty as responsibility. The Pacific Review 24(2), 179200.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Besson, S. (2011). Human rights and democracy in a global context: Decoupling and recoupling. Ethics & Global Politics 4(1), 1950.

  • Booth, A. (1992). An economic overview of Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian Affairs, 2143.

  • Booth, K. (1991). Security and emancipation. Review of International Studies 17(4), 313326.

  • Brown, P. (2016, August 5). Thailand, Philippines witnessing reversals of people power: Patrick Brown. CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/thailand-philippines-people-power-1.3707890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caballero-Anthony, M. (Ed.) (2016). Political change, democratic transitions and security in Southeast Asia. London: Routledge.

  • CARI. (2013, June). The ASEAN Economic Community: The status of implementation, challenges and bottlenecks. Kuala Lumpur: CIMB ASEAN Research Institute (CARI).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, J.Y., & Chong, A. (2016). Security competition by proxy: Asia Pacific interstate rivalry in the aftermath of the MH370 incident. Global Change, Peace & Security 28(1), 7598.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Connolly, W. E. (1991). Democracy and territoriality. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 20(3), 463484.

  • Davies, M. (2013). The ASEAN synthesis: Human rights, nonintervention, and the ASEAN human rights declaration. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 14(2), 5158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davies, M. (2014a). An agreement to disagree: The ASEAN human rights declaration and the absence of regional identity in Southeast Asia. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 33(3), 107129.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davies, M. (2014b). States of compliance? Global human rights treaties and ASEAN member states. Journal of Human Rights 13(4), 414433.

  • Deng, F. M., Kimaro, S., Lyons, T., Rothchild, D., & Zartman, I. W. (1996). Sovereignty as responsibility: Conflict management in Africa. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doyle, M. W. (1983). Kant, liberal legacies, and foreign affairs. Philosophy & Public Affairs 12(3), 205235.

  • Ho, S. (2008). Japan's human security policy: A critical review of its limits and failures. Japan Studies 28(1), 101112.

  • Hutt, D. (2017, June 7). How nationalism undermines ASEAN integration. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2017/06/how-nationalism-undermines-asean-integration/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, L. (2012). ASEAN, sovereignty and intervention in Southeast Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Jones, L. (2016). Explaining the failure of the ASEAN economic community: The primacy of domestic political economy. The Pacific Review 29(5), 647670.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, D. M., & Smith, M. L. R. (2007). Making process, not progress: ASEAN and the evolving East Asian regional order. International Security 32(1), 148184.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaiman, J. (2017, November 3). Asia is turning its back on democracy, and some say Trump isn't helping. Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-trump-bump-20171103-story.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katsumata, H. (2009). ASEAN and human rights: Resisting Western pressure or emulating the West? The Pacific Review 22(5), 619637.

  • Kelsall, M.S. (2009). The new ASEAN intergovernmental commission on human rights: Toothless tiger or tentative first step? Asia Pacific Issues 90, 18. Honolulu, HI: East-West Center.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kivimäki, T. (2001). The long peace of ASEAN. Journal of Peace Research 38(1), 525.

  • Kivimäki, T. (2011). East Asian relative peace and the ASEAN way. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific 11(1), 5785.

  • Kranrattanasuit, N. (2014). ASEAN and human trafficking: Case studies of Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

  • Kurus, B. (1993). Agreeing to disagree: The political reality of ASEAN economic cooperation. Asian Affairs: An American Review 20(1), 2841.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latham, R. (1996). Getting out from under: Rethinking security beyond liberalism and the levels-of-analysis problem. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 25(1), 77108.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lego, J. (2017, May 17). Why ASEAN can't ignore the Rohingya crisis. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2017/05/why-asean-cant-ignore-the-rohingya-crisis/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leifer, M. (1999). The ASEAN peace process: A category mistake. The Pacific Review 12(1), 2538.

  • Leviter, L. (2010). The ASEAN charter: ASEAN's failure or member failure? New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 43(159), 159210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loh, D. M. H. (2016). ASEAN's norm adherence and its unintended consequences in HADR and SAR operations. The Pacific Review 29(4), 549572.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopez, G. (2012, June 25). Southeast Asia's illiberal regimes. New Mandela. http://www.newmandala.org/southeast-asias-illiberal-regimes/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maria, R. S., Urata, S., & Intal, P. S. (2017). The ASEAN Economic Community into 2025 and beyond. In R. S. Maria, S. Urata, & P. S. Intal (Eds.), The ASEAN Economic Community into 2025 and beyond (pp. 163). Jakarta: Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Menon, J., & Melendez, A. (2015) Realizing an ASEAN economic community: Progress and remaining challenges. Asian Development Bank Economics Working Paper Series 432. Manila: Asian Development Bank.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moravcsik, A. (1998). The choice for Europe: Social purpose and state power from Messina to Maastricht. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Narine, S. (2002). ASEAN in the aftermath: The consequences of the East Asian economic crisis. Global Governance 8(2), 179194.

  • Nesadurai, H. E. S., & Djiwandono, J. S. (Eds.). (2009). Southeast Asia in the global economy: Securing competitiveness and social protection. Singapore: ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patunro, A. A. (2018). Rising economic nationalism in Indonesia. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies 35(3), 335354.

  • Pisanò, A. (2016). Towards an ASEAN human rights mechanism: The ASEAN commission on the promotion and protection of the rights of women and children. The International Journal of Human Rights 20(3), 321342.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogin, J. (2011, September 22). U.N. Security Council debates preventive diplomacy. Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/2011/09/22/u-n-security-council-debates-preventive-diplomacy/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rüland, J. (2014). The limits of democratizing interest representation: ASEAN's regional corporatism and normative challenges. European Journal of International Relations 20(1), 237261.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sukma, R. (2014). ASEAN beyond 2015: The imperatives for further institutional changes. ERIA Discussion Paper Series ERIA-DP-2014-01. Jakarta: Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tan, H. L. (2011). The ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights: Institutionalizing human rights in Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tan, S. S. (2013). Herding cats: The role of persuasion in political change and continuity in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). International Relations of the Asia-Pacific 13(2), 233265.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tan, S.S. (2018). Asia's “tragic” return to great-power politics? Asia Policy 13(4), 3641.

  • Tan, S.S. (2019). The responsibility to provide in Southeast Asia: Towards an ethical explanation. Bristol: Bristol University Press.

  • Tan, S. S. (2020). Is ASEAN finally getting multilateralism right? From ARF to ADMM+. Asian Studies Review 44(1), 2843.

  • Timothy, K. (2004). Human security discourse at the United Nations. Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 16(1), 1924.

  • Volkmann, R. (2008). Why does ASEAN need a charter? Pushing actors and their national interests. ASIEN 109, 7887.

  • Watson, S. (2011). The “human” as referent object? Humanitarianism as securitization. Security Dialogue 42(1), 320.

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 515 515 38
Full Text Views 16 16 1
PDF Downloads 29 29 5