Colonial frontiers, we have long been told, put conventional categories at risk. I grew up on
one such frontier, itself an anachronism in the late-twentieth-century world—apartheid South
Africa, where many of the key terms of liberal modernity were scandalously, publically violated.
Religion was one of them. Some have argued that the act of separating the sacred from the secular
is the founding gesture of liberal modern state making (Asad 2003: 13). In this, South Africa
was a flagrant exception. There, the line between faith and politics was always overtly contested,
always palpably porous. Faith-based arguments were central to politics at its most pragmatic, to
competing claims of sovereignty and citizenship, to debates about the nature of civilization or
the content of school curricula. As a settler colony, South Africa had long experimented with
ways to ‘modernize racial domination’ (Adam 1971) in the interests of capitalist production,
frequently with appeals to theology. After 1948, in contrast with the spirit of a decolonizing
world, the country fell under the sway of Afrikaner rulers of overtly Calvinist bent. They set
about formalizing a racial division of labor that ensured that black populations, the Children of
Ham, remained economically subservient and politically marginal.