This article looks into notions of the sky among the Guaycurú aboriginal
groups in the Argentine Chaco within the context of the socio-religious changes they
have undergone since the eighteenth century. By using ethno-astronomy and anthropology
of religion perspectives, and based on our own ethnographic and documentary
work, we have analyzed both the continuities and the ruptures in the Guaycurú skies.
In doing so, we have found that social relations between humans and non-humans
shape the Guaycurú experience of celestial space. These bonds have a strongly political
character as they are structured around power asymmetries. The colonial experience,
including Christian missions, has imposed modernity on these groups as an overall
horizon of possibilities. However, the Guaycurú have sought to redefine modernity,
creating their own ‘modernity paths’.