Groped and Gutted

Hollywood's Hegemonic Reimagining of Counterculture

in Screen Bodies
View More View Less
  • 1 Boston College, USA eddysa@bc.edu
Restricted access

Abstract

The realm of horror provides a creative space in which the breakdown of social order can either expose power relations or further cement them by having them persist after the collapse. Carol Clover proposed that the 1970s slasher film genre—known for its sex and gore fanfare—provided feminist identification through its “final girl” indie invention. Over three decades later, with the genre now commercialized, this research exposes the reality of sexual and horrific imagery within the Hollywood mainstay. Using a mixed-methods approach, I develop four categories of depiction across cisgender representation in these films: violent, sexual, sexually violent, and postmortem. I explore the ways in which a white, heterosexist imagination has appropriated this once productive genre through the violent treatment of bodies. This exposes the means by which hegemonic, oppressive structures assimilate and sanitize counter-media. This article provides an important discussion on how counterculture is transformed in capital systems and then used to uphold the very structures it seeks to confront. The result of such assimilation is the violent treatment and stereotyping of marginalized identities in which creative efforts now pursue new means of brutalization and dehumanization.

Contributor Notes

Samantha Eddy is a Teaching Fellow and Doctoral Candidate at Boston College. As a mixed-race Huron-Wendat woman, questions of consumerism, culture, and power have guided her activism and academic interests. She studies these subjects through the lens of popular culture, media, and subcultural spaces. Beyond that, she engages in community-based activism for Indigenous rights and seeks to bring Indigenous perspectives and methods into her teaching. Email: eddysa@bc.edu

Screen Bodies

The Journal of Embodiment, Media Arts, and Technology

  • Acosta-Alzuru, Carolina. 2010. “Beauty Queens, Machistas and Street Children: The Production and Reception of Socio-Cultural Issues in Telenovelas.” International Journal of Cultural Studies 13 (2): 185203. doi:10.1177/1367877909356719.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, Michelle. 2001. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: New Press.

  • Aubrey, Jennifer, Megan Hopper, and Wanjiru G. Mbure. 2011. “Check That Body! The Effects of Sexually Objectifying Music Videos on College Men's Sexual Beliefs.” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 55 (3): 360379. doi:10.1080/08838151.2011.597469.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bayer, Samuel. Nightmare on Elm Street. 2010.

  • Cherry, Brigid. 2009. Horror. New York: Routledge.

  • Christensen, Kyle. “The Final Girl vs Wes Craven's A Nightmare on Elm Street: Proposing a Stronger Model of Feminism in Slasher Horror Cinema.” Studies in Popular Culture 34 (1): 2347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clover, Carol J. 1992. Men, Women and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film. London: BFI.

  • Clark, Caitlin Marie. 2014. “The Origins of Heterosexist Attitudes among Young Children.” PhD diss., University of Texas at Austin.

    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, Jeffrey J. 2012. “The Werewolf's Indifference.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 34 (1): 351356. doi:10.1353/sac.2012.0024.

  • Colfax, J. David, and Susan Frankel Sternberg. 1972. “The Perpetuation of Racial Stereotypes: Blacks in Mass Circulation Magazine Advertisements.” Public Opinion Quarterly 36 (1): 818. doi:10.1086/267971.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Derkas, Erika. 2011. “Don't Let Your Pregnancy Get in the Way of Your Drug Addiction’: CRACK and the Ideological Construction of Addicted Women.” Social Justice 38 (3): 125-144. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41940951

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dirks, Tim. 1999. “The History of Film: The 1970s.” Filmsite.org. http://www.filmsite.org/70sintro.html (accessed 06/22/2017).

  • Feagin, Joe R. 2010. The White Racial Frame: Centuries of Racial Framing and Counter-Framing. New York: Routledge.

  • Films Media Group. 2016. “Visual Analysis.” New York: Discovery Education.

  • Flaherty, Mike. 2000. “Leprechaun in the Hood.” Entertainment, 31 March. http://ew.com/article/2000/03/31/leprechaun-hood/.

  • Franco, Annie, Neil Malhotra, and Gabor Simonovits. 2014. “Publication Bias in the Social Sciences: Unlocking the File Drawer.” Science 345 (6203): 15021505.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foucault, Michel. 1989. The Archeology of Knowledge. London: Routledge.

  • Goffman, Erving. 1976. Gender Advertisements. New York: Harper & Row.

  • Gray, Herman. 2013. “Subject(ed) to Recognition”. American Quarterly 65 (4): 771798. doi:10.1353/aq.2013.0058.

  • Kasch, Andrew. 2010. Never Sleep Again: The Elm Street Legacy. USA: 1428 Films.

  • Hendricks, Michael L. 2014. “President's Welcome.” Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity 1 (1): 3. doi:10.1037/sgd0000024.

  • Hughey, Matthew W. 2014. “Identity Isomorphism: Role Schemas and White Masculinity Formation.” Sociological Inquiry 84 (2): 264293. doi:10.1111/soin.12034.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunter, Sally V. 2010. “Analyzing and Representing Narrative Data: The Long and Winding Road.” Current Narratives 1 (2): 4454. https://ro.uow.edu.au/currentnarratives/vol1/iss2/5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kristeva, Julia. (1941) 1982. Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection. Trans. Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia University Press.

  • Lu, Alexander, and Joel Wong. 2013. “Stressful Experiences of Masculinity among U.S.-Born and Immigrant Asian American Men.” Gender & Society 27 (3): 345371. doi:10.1177/0891243213479446.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maddison, Stephen. 2013. “Beyond the Entrepreneurial Voyeur? Sex, Porn and Cultural Politics.” New Formations 80 (1): 102118. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/529455

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, Jennifer. 2006. “Mixing Methods in a Qualitatively Driven Way. Qualitative Research 6 (1): 925. doi:10.1177/1468794106058866.

  • McDowell, Deborah E. 1995. “The Changing Same”: Black Women's Literature, Criticism, and Theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mills, C. Wright. 1956. The Power Elite. London: Oxford University Press.

  • Molina-Guzman, Isabel. 2016. “#OscarsSoWhite: How Stuart Hall Explains Why Nothing Changes in Hollywood and Everything Is Changing.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 33 (5): 438454. doi:10.1080/15295036.2016.1227864.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mulvey, Laura. 1989. Visual and Other Pleasures. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

  • Nobile Jr., Phil. 2010. Halloween: The Inside Story. Center City Film. United States.

  • Nowell, Richard. 2011. “There's More Than One Way to Lose Your Heart: The American Film Industry, Early Teen Slasher Films, and Female Youth.” Cinema Journal 51 (1): 115140. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41342285

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O'Barr, William M. 2011. “Mad Men: Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Sexuality, and Class.” Advertising & Society Review 11 (4). https://muse.jhu.edu/article/407305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pfohl, Stephen J. 2009. Images of Deviance and Social Control: A Sociological History. Long Grove, IL: Waveland.

  • Projansky, Sarah. 2001. Watching Rape: Film and Television Postfeminist Culture. New York: New York University Press.

  • Rittichainuwat, Bongkosh and Suphaporn Rattanaphinanchai. 2015. “Applying a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative design in explaining the travel motivation of film tourists in visiting a film-shooting destination”. Tourism Management 46: 136147. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2014.06.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raheja, Michelle. 2010. Reservation Reelism: Redfacing, Visual Sovereignty, and Representations of Native Americans in Film. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sawicki, Jana. 1991. Disciplining Foucault: Feminism, Power, and the Body. New York: Routledge.

  • Schwark, Sandra. 2017. “Visual Representations of Sexual Violence in Online News Outlets.” Frontiers in Psychology 8: Article 774. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00774.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Semati, M. Medhi, and Patty J. Sotorin. 1999. “Hollywood's Transnational Appeal: Hegemony and Democratic Potential?Journal of Popular Films and Television 26 (4): 176188. doi:10.1080/01956059909602789.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, Stacy, Marc Choueiti, and Katherine Pieper. 2017. “Inclusion or Invisibility: Comprehensive Annenberg Report on Diversity in Entertainment.” Los Angeles: Institute for Diversity and Empowerment at the Annenberg School of Business, University of Southern California. https://annenberg.usc.edu/sites/default/files/2017/04/07/MDSCI_CARD_Report_FINAL_Exec_Summary.pdf.

    • Export Citation
  • Sturtevant, Victoria. 1999. “But Things Is Changin’ Nowadays an’ Mammy's Getting’ Bored’: Hattie McDaniel and the Culture of Dissemblance.” Velvet Light Trap 44: 6875.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szymanski, Dawn M., Lauren B. Moffitt, and Erika R. Carr. 2010. “Sexual Objectification of Women: Advances to Theory and Research.” The Counseling Psychologist 39 (1): 638. doi:10.1177/0011000010378402.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • The Numbers. 2018. “Box Office History for Halloween Movies.” Nash Information Services, LLC. https://www.the-numbers.com/movies/franchise/Halloween#tab=summary.

    • Export Citation
  • Tibbs, Donald F. 2012. “From Black Power to Hip Hop: Discussing Race, Policing, and the Fourth Amendment through the ‘War On’ Paradigm.” Journal of Gender, Race and Justice 15 (1): 3347. https://works.bepress.com/donald_tibbs/10/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tseng, Chiaoi, and John Bateman. 2012. “Multimodal Narrative Construction in Christopher Nolan's Memento.” Visual Communication 11 (1): 91119. doi:10.1177/1470357211424691.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wykes, Maggie, and Barrie Gunter. 2005. The Media and Body Image: If Looks Could Kill. London: Sage.

  • Ayromlooi, Steven. 2003. Leprechaun: Back to Tha Hood. USA.

  • Bayer, Samuel. 2010. Nightmare on Elm Street. USA.

  • Blanks, Jamie 1998. Urban Legend. USA.

  • Craven, Wes. 1996. Scream. USA.

  • Fleming, Victor. 1939. Gone with the Wind. USA.

  • Gillespie, Jim. 1997. I Know What You Did Last Summer. USA.

  • Kasch, Andrew. 2010. Never Sleep Again: The Elm Street Legacy. USA.

  • Lussier, Patrick. 2009. My Bloody Valentine. USA.

  • McCormick, Nelson. 2008. Prom Night. USA.

  • Nispel, Marcus. 2009. Friday the 13th. USA.

  • Nispel, Marcus. 2003. Texas Chainsaw Massacre. USA.

  • Spera, Rob. 2000. Leprechaun in the Hood. USA.

  • Trendle, George T., and George W. George. The Lone Ranger. 1949–1957. USA.

  • West, Simon. 2006. When a Stranger Calls. USA.

  • Yu, Ronny. 2003. Freddy vs. Jason. USA.

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 187 187 28
Full Text Views 69 69 0
PDF Downloads 8 8 0