Reducing human character, characteristics, and behavior to biological conditions
of people or specific categories of them has long been an aspect of science,
and emerges from The Enlightenment. It is in some senses a part of an
heroic attempt to find the cause and effect explanations of everything—to provide
consistent explanation of everything from falling stones to the determinates
of ‘intelligence’ and criminal minds. These explanations are based in
materiality. Gould (1981) provides a good summary of much of this.