Deliberation and Courts

The Role of the Judiciary in a Deliberative System

in Theoria
View More View Less
  • 1 King’s College London donald.bello_hutt@kcl.ac.uk
Restricted access

Abstract

We lack analyses of the judiciary from a systemic perspective. This article thus examines arguments offered by deliberativists who have reflected about this institution and argues that the current state of deliberative democracy requires us to rethink the ways they conceive of the judiciary within a deliberative framework. After an examination of these accounts, I define the deliberative system and describe the different phases deliberative democracy has gone through. I then single out elements common to all systemic approaches against which I test whether the regard that the authors show for the judiciary in deliberative terms can be maintained and argue in the negative. I conclude by pointing at the necessity to think about the definition of deliberative systems, and to the value of these discussions for debates on the legitimacy of judicial review when it is exercised under the form of judicial supremacy.

Contributor Notes

Donald Bello Hutt is a PhD in Philosophy (Universities of Valladolid and Salamanca) and PhD candidate in Politics at King’s College London.

Theoria

A Journal of Social and Political Theory

  • Ackerman, B. 1991. We the People: Foundations. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

  • Ackerman, B. and J. S. Fishkin. 2004. Deliberation Day. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Alexy, R. 2005. ‘Balancing, Constitutional Review, and Representation’, International Journal of Constitutional Law 3 (4): 572581. doi:10.1093/icon/moi040

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aristotle. 1992. The Politics, trans. T. Sinclair. London: Penguin.

  • Bächtiger, A., S. Niemeyer, M. Neblo, M. R. Steenberger and J. Steiner. 2010. ‘Disentangling Diversity in Deliberative Democracy: Competing Theories, Their Blind Spots and Complementarities’, Journal of Political Philosophy 18 (1): 3263.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bellamy, R. 2007. Political Constitutionalism: A Republican Defence of the Constitutionality of Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bellamy, R. 2013. ‘The Democratic Qualities of Courts: A Critical Analysis of Three Arguments’, Representation 49 (3): 333346.

  • Bohman, J. 1996. Public Deliberation: Pluralism, Complexity, and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Bohman, J. 1998. ‘Survey Article: The Coming of Age of Deliberative Democracy’, Journal of Political Philosophy 6 (4): 400425.

  • Bohman, J. 2009. ‘Epistemic Value and Deliberative Democracy’, The Good Society 18 (2): 2834.

  • Bohman, J. 2012. ‘Representation in the Deliberative System’, in J. Parkinson and J. Mansbridge (eds), Deliberative Systems: Deliberative Democracy at the Large Scale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 7294.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chambers, S. 2003. ‘Deliberative Democratic Theory’, Annual Review of Political Science 6: 307326.

  • Chambers, S. 2012. ‘Deliberation and Mass Democracy’, in J. Parkinson and J. Mansbridge (eds), Deliberative Systems: Deliberative Democracy at the Large Scale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 5371.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chambers, S. 2013. ‘The Many Faces of Good Citizenship’, Critical Review 25 (2): 199209.

  • Christiano, T. 2012. ‘Deliberation among Experts and Citizens’, in J. Parkinson and J. Mansbridge (eds), Deliberative Systems: Deliberative Democracy at the Large Scale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2751.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christiano, T. 2015. ‘Voter Ignorance Is Not Necessarily a Problem, Critical Review 27 (3–4): 253269.

  • Cohen, J. 1997. ‘Deliberation and Democratic Legitimacy’, in J. Bohman and W. Rehg (eds), Deliberative Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 6792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. 2009. ‘Reflections on Deliberative Democracy’, in T. Christiano and J. Friedman (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Political Philosophy, Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 247263.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. 2003. ‘For a Democratic Society’, in S. Freeman (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Rawls. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 86138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delli Carpini, M. X., F. Lomax Cook and R. L. Jakobs. 2004. ‘Public Deliberations, Discursive Participation and Citizen Engagement: A Review of the Empirical Literature’, Annual Review of Political Science 7 (1): 315344.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dickson, J. 2015. ‘Interpretation and Coherence in Legal Reasoning’, 12 February, ed. E. N. Zalta, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2014/entries/legal-reas-interpret.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doherty, K. and R. Pevnick. 2013. ‘Are There Good Procedural Objections to Judicial Review?’, Journal of Politics 76 (1): 112. doi:10.1017/S0022381613001084

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dryzek, J. 2000. Deliberative Democracy and Beyond: Liberals, Critics, Contestations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Dryzek, J. 2001. ‘Legitimacy and Economy in Deliberative Democracy’, Political Theory 29 (5): 651669.

  • Dryzek, J. 2010a. ‘Rhetoric in Democracy: A Systemic Appreciation’, Political Theory 38 (3): 319339.

  • Dryzek, J. 2010b. Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Dworkin, R. 1978. Taking Rights Seriously. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Eisgruber, C. 2001. Constitutional Self-government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Elster, J. 1986. ‘The Market and the Forum: Three Varieties of Political Theory’, in J. Elster and A. Hylland (eds), Foundations of Social Choice Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 104132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elster, J. 1998. ‘Introduction’, in J. Elster (ed.), Deliberative Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 118.

  • Ferejohn, J. and P. Pasquino (2002). ‘Constitutional Courts as Deliberative Institutions: Towards an Institutional Theory of Constitutional Justice’, in W. Sadurski (ed.), Constitutional Justice: East and West. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fishkin, J. S. 1997. The Voice of the People: Public Opinion and Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Fishkin, J. S. 2009. When the People Speak. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Fishkin, J. S. 2014. ‘Deliberative Democracy in Context: Reflections on Theory and Practice’, in K. Grönlund, A. Bächtiger and M. Setalä (eds), Deliberative Mini-publics: Involving Citizens in the Democratic Process. Colchester: ECPR Press, 2739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freeman, S. 2000. ‘Deliberative Democracy: A Sympathetic Comment’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 29 (4): 371418.

  • Fuller, L. 1978. ‘The Forms and Limits of Adjudication’, Harvard Law Review 92 (2): 353409.

  • Fung, A. 2003. ‘Survey Article: Recipes for Public Spheres: Eight Institutional Design Choices and Their Consequences’, Journal of Political Philosophy 11 (3): 338367.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fung, A. and M. E. Warren. 2011. ‘The Participedia Project: An Introduction’, International Public Management Journal 14 (3): 341362.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gargarella, R. 1996. La justicia frente al gobierno: Sobre el carácter contramayoritario del poder judicial. Barcelona: Ariel.

  • Gastil, J. and P. Levine, (eds). 2005. The Deliberative Democracy Handbook. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  • Goodin, R. 2005. ‘Sequencing Deliberative Moments’, Acta Politica 40: 182195. doi:10.1057/palgrave.ap.5500098

  • Goodin, R. 2008. Innovating Democracy: Democratic Theory and Practice after the Deliberative Turn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodin, R. E. and J. S. Dryzek. 2006. ‘Deliberative Impacts: The Macro-political Uptake of Mini-publics’, Politics & Society 34 (2): 219244.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grönlund, K., A. Bächtiger and M. Setälä (eds). 2014. Deliberative Mini-publics: Involving Citizens in the Democratic Process. Colchester: ECPR Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gutmann, A. and D. Thompson. 1996. Democracy and Disagreement. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

  • Habermas, J. 1990. ‘Discourse Ethics: Notes on a Program of Philosophical Justification’, in S. Benhabib and F. Dallmayr (eds), The Communicative Ethics Controversy (Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press: 60110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Habermas, J. 1993. Justification and Application: Remarks on Discourse Ethics, trans. C. Cronin. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Habermas, J. 1996. Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy, trans. W. Rehg. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamilton, A. 1948. ‘The Federalist LXXVIII’, in A. Hamilton, J. Madison and J. Jay, The Federalist, or The New Constitution. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 395402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harel, A. 2014. Why Law Matters. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Hendriks, C. M. 2006. ‘Integrative Deliberation: Reconciling Civil Society’s Dual Role in Deliberative Democracy’, Political Studies 54: 486508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kant, I. 1996. Critique of Pure Reason, trans. W. S. Pluhar. Indianapolis: Hackett.

  • Kramer, L. 2004. The People Themselves: Popular Constitutionalism and Judicial Review. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Kuyper, J. 2015. ‘Democratic Deliberation in the Modern World: The Systemic Turn’, Critical Review 27 (1): 4963.

  • Lafont, C. 2015. ‘Deliberation, Participation, and Democratic Legitimacy: Should Deliberative Mini-publics Shape Public Policy?’, Journal of Political Philosophy 23 (1): 4063.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manin, B. 1987. ‘On Legitimacy and Political Deliberation’, Political Theory 15 (3): 338368.

  • Mansbridge, J. 1999. ‘Everyday Talk in the Deliberative System’, in S. Macedo (ed.), Deliberative Politics: Essays on Democracy and Disagreement. New York: Oxford University Press, 211239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mansbridge, J. and M. Warren. 2013. ‘Deliberative Negotiation’, in T. F. Politics, J. Mansbridge and C. Jo Marthin (eds), Negotiating Agreements in Politics. Washington, DC: American Political Science Association, 86115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mansbridge, J., J. Bohman, S. Chambers, T. Christiano, A. Fung, J. R. Parkinson and M. Warren. 2012. ‘A Systemic Approach to Deliberative Democracy’, in J. Parkinson and J. Mansbridge (eds), Deliberative Systems: Deliberative Democracy at the Large Scale: Theories of Institutional Design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mansbridge, J., J. Bohman, S. Chambers, D. Estlund, A. Føllesdal, A. Fung and J. Martí. 2010. ‘The Place of Self-interest and the Role of Power in Deliberative Democracy’, Journal of Political Philosophy 18 (1): 64100.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martí, J. L. 2006. La república deliberativa. Madrid: Marcial Pons.

  • Mendonça, R. 2013. The Conditions and Dilemmas of Deliberative Systems. Chicago: American Political Science Association, 131.

  • Morrel, M. E. 2014. ‘Participant Bias and Success in Deliberative Mini-publics’, in K. Grönlund, A. Bächtiger and M. Setälä (eds), Deliberative Mini-publics: Involving Citizens in the Democratic Process. Colchester: ECPR Press, 157175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Owen, D. and G. Smith. 2015. ‘Survey Article: Deliberation, Democracy, and the Systemic Turn’, Journal of Political Philosophy 23 (2): 213234.

  • Papadopoulos, Y. 2012. ‘On the Embeddedness of Deliberative Systems’, in J. Parkinson and J. Mansbridge (eds), Deliberative Systems: Deliberative Democracy at the Large Scale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 125150.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parkinson, J. 2012. ‘Democratizing Deliberative Systems’, in J. Parkinson and J. Mansbridge (eds), Deliberative Systems: Deliberative Democracy at the Large Scale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 151172.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rawls, J. 1996. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.

  • Raz, J. 1975. Practical Reasons and Norms. London: Hutchinson.

  • Rehg, W. and J. Bohman. 1996. ‘Survey Article: Discourse and Democracy: The Formal and Informal Bases of Legitimacy in Habermas Faktizität und Geltung’, Journal of Political Philosophy 4 (1): 7999.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosanvallon, P. 2011. Democratic Legitimacy: Impartiality, Reflexivity, Proximity, trans. A. Goldhammer. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, M. and G. Smith. 2014. ‘Defining Mini-publics’, in K. Grönlund, A. Bächtiger and M. Setälä (eds), Deliberative Mini-publics: Involving Citizens in the Democratic Process. Colchester: ECPR Press, 926.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schkade, D., C. R. Sunstein and R. Hastie. 2010. ‘When Deliberation Produces Extremism’, Critical Review 22: 227252.

  • Sen, M. 2013. ‘Courting Deliberation: An Essay on Deliberative Democracy in the American Judicial System’, Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics, & Public Policy 27: 303331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tomkins, A. 2010. ‘The Role of the Courts in the Political Constitution’, University of Toronto Law Journal 60: 122.

  • Tushnet, M. 1999. Taking the Constitution Away from the Courts. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Waldron, J. 1999a. Law and Disagreement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Waldron, J. 1999b. The Dignity of Legislation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Waldron, J. 2006. ‘The Core of the Case against Judicial Review’, Yale Law Journal 115: 13461406.

  • Waldron, J. 2007. ‘Lucky in Your Judge’, Theoretical Inquiries in Law 9: 185216.

  • Waldron, J. 2009a. ‘Judges as Moral Reasoners’, International Journal of Constitutional Law 7 (1): 224.

  • Waldron, J. 2009b. ‘Refining the Question About Judges’ Moral Capacity’, International Journal of Constitutional Law 7 (1): 6982.

  • Young, I. M. 1999. ‘Justice, Inclusion, and Deliberative Democracy’, in S. Macedo (ed.), Deliberative Politics: Essays on Democracy and Disagreement. New York: Oxford University Press, 151158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zurn, C. 2007. Deliberative Democracy and the Institutions of Judicial Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 58 58 9
Full Text Views 4 4 0
PDF Downloads 1 1 0