The Future of Representative Politics

On Tormey, Krastev and Rosanvallon

in Theoria
Mihail Evans New Europe College/Institute for Advanced Studies, Bucharest, Romania

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This paper examines claims made about political representation in recent work on global protest, focusing on two very different authors. Tormey champions the anti-representative claims of various radical movements while Krastev assumes the stance of those political insiders who deplore the failure of protesters to work within established representative institutions. Both turn to examples which seem to best support their positions. Tormey to anarchist inspired movements in Spain and Mexico, his argument being that political representation has been succeed by what he variously calls ‘immediate representation’ and ‘resonance’. Krastev's focus is Russia, Thailand and Bulgaria. His argument is that protest in these countries can be seen are ‘a collective act of exit’ by middle classes that no longer seek political representation. Using the theorisation of political representation in Rosanvallon's Counter Democracy, I suggest that the global waves of protest of recent years are nothing inherently novel but can be seen as part of the elaborate and complex process of representation that is argued to have always existed beyond and outside of official elected legislative bodies. In conclusion, I suggest that Macron's turn to citizen's assemblies can be seen as informed by just such an understanding of political representation.

Contributor Notes

Mihail Evans is a graduate of the universities of Wales, Oxford and Nottingham. His PhD was awarded by UWE, Bristol. He is currently an International Research Fellow at the New Europe College/Institute for Advanced Studies, Bucharest. E-mail:

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A Journal of Social and Political Theory

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