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“God's Mighty Arm Makes the French Victorious”

The French Revolutionary Deists Who Believed in Miracles

Joseph Waligore

Abstract

The deists have commonly been characterized as irreligious thinkers who believed in a distant and inactive deity. This characterization of deism is undermined by the large number of French Revolutionary deists who believed that God worked miracles. Some French Revolutionary deists claimed that God continually led the French armies to victory, while others said that God worked a single miracle. After eliminating the French Revolutionaries who were following the party line when Maximilien Robespierre was in power, there were 72 French Revolutionary deists who believed God worked miracles to help the French Revolution. The French Revolutionary deists shared a common theology with the earlier deists, and many earlier deists also believed that God worked miracles. The Enlightenment deists were much more religious than commonly thought.

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God's Viral Warriors

Christian Nationalism, Masculinity, and the Representation of Self

Jason Luger

Abstract

This article introduces the character of the viral God warrior: the online/offline represented/performed self of Christianity, nationalism (e.g., Christian Nationalism), muscular masculinity, and, significantly, whiteness. Through an online ethnography focusing on critical visual and discourse analyses, and critically reading semiotic signposts and codes, the article suggests that this emergent masculinity is complex, contradictory, and not easily categorized as “open” or “closed,” toxic or desirable. It is, like masculinity more broadly, hybridized, dynamically fluid, and intersectional. Nonetheless, it is a troubling masculinity in the way it allows for a meeting of extremism and the mainstream and acts as a sanitizing mask (through the vectors of faith, health and patriotism) that belies latent racist, homophobic, misogynistic, and authoritarian (and fascistic) characteristics that virally disseminate through broader society and culture.

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The Graphic Novel as Mediation of the Anthropocene

Allegory, Ignorability, and Pedagogy in Javi Rey's Adaptation of Henrik Ibsen's An Enemy of the People

Per Esben Svelstad

Abstract

This article presents a comparative analysis of Henrik Ibsen's play En folkefiende [An Enemy of the People, 1882] and its adaptation into a graphic novel by Javi Rey (2022). The plot revolves around Dr Tomas Stockmann's discovery that the water of the touristic baths of his hometown is polluted and his futile attempt to convince his fellow citizens to take action. I argue that this can be read as an allegory of specific aspects of the Anthropocene. Moreover, while both works address the production of ignorance about human environmental change, the graphic novel possesses medium-specific ways of depicting the gap between knowledge and action. Finally, while the play is a black comedy, the graphic novel conveys a stronger faith in democratic pedagogy, adapted to twenty-first-century discourses on climate.

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Ich-Du

Nurturing Empathy for a Better World

Carmen Collins and Basilio Monteiro

Abstract

In this article, we will use Martin Buber's ‘I and Thou’ concept to nurture empathy for future generations to come inside the classroom. In a modern world where a class's progress is measured by data and the robotisation of learning, we propose the use of Socratic dialogue as it allows for empathy to flourish, not just for students but for teachers as well. Learning through dialogue allows for everyone, both inside and outside the classroom, to learn how to have more empathy. This type of pedagogy creates a humanised approach to learning through the establishment of relationships. The way a student perceives the world around them, and the people in their life, must be nurtured with empathy for a better world.

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Imagining Himalayan Glacial Futures

Knowledge Rifts, Disciplinary Debates and Icy Vitalities at the Third Pole

Georgina Drew and Mabel Denzin Gergan

Abstract

Worry for the fate of Himalayan glaciers is prominent in climate change research, and encounters with glacial retreat shape imaginings of future ruination. Emotions run high when social scientists concerned with the implications of ice sheet collapse are confronted with the views of select glaciologists who downplay the scope of ice melt. At play in the disciplinary disagreements that arise are different orientations to time, and different imaginaries of Himalayan climate futures based on images of, and data about, glacial retreat. It is the complexity of glaciological knowledge production that this article creates space to understand. At stake is an effort to hold up, for social science audiences, the disparate knowings – between and among disciplines – that impact how Himalayan glacial melt is discussed and imagined.

Résumé

L'inquiétude pour le destin des glaciers himalayens est saillant dans la recherche sur le changement climatique. Le constat du retrait des glaciers façonne largement les imaginaires de notre ruine à venir. L’émotion est à son comble lorsque les spécialistes de science sociale préoccupés par l'effondrement de la calotte glaciaire sont confrontés aux vues de glaciologues de renom qui minimisent l’étendue de la fonte des glaces. Ce qui est en jeu dans le désaccord disciplinaire qui émerge alors, ce sont les orientations temporelles différentes ainsi que les imaginaires différents sur le futur de l'Himalaya, imaginaires basés sur des photographies et des données documentant la fonte des glaces. C'est la complexité de la production savante glaciologique que cet article s'est donné pour tâche de comprendre. L'enjeu y est de saisir, pour un lectorat de sciences sociales, la disparité des savoirs – entre et au sein des disciplines – qui impacte la manière dont la fonte des glaces himalayennes est discutée et imaginée.

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Impact and Challenges of Disseminating Ideas on Environmental Consciousness through Intangible Cultural Heritage Educational Programmes in Greece

Panas Karampampas

Abstract

This article examines the challenges associated with implementing and designing educational programmes on intangible cultural heritage (ICH) concerning environmental consciousness. These include (1) students being disconnected from the context of the ICH elements of the programmes; (2) teachers lacking adequate ICH training in designing and implementing the programmes; and (3) a Kafkaesque bureaucracy and incommensurability between actors. These programmes relate to a trend derived from UNESCO and European Union interests in transmitting ICH through education. Some of these challenges are surpassed by ‘avocational individuals’ who go beyond their job descriptions to enhance student learning. The article demonstrates how such programmes redefine human–environment relationships and make practical suggestions. Although the ethnographic examples are from Greece, the findings are arguably relevant to other places with a similar educational and social context.

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Intangible Cultural Heritage and Climate Change

Sustainability and Adaptability in a Time of Crisis?

Philip McDermott and Mairéad Nic Craith

Abstract

It has now been two decades since UNESCO's Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage was adopted. A ground-breaking treaty, the Convention brought recognition of heritage as a living, breathing element of human existence, but has it reached its full potential? This article acts as an introduction to our forum edition on the connection between climate change and intangible cultural heritage (ICH). We consider how debates on heritage, and in particular ICH, have increasingly focussed on intersections between tradition and present-day social concerns, including those around the environment. Throughout our introduction, we identify themes discussed by each of the authors in the forum. In doing so, we illustrate how ICH acts as an important method through which to illuminate and potentially tackle challenges around climate change and its impact on society and human culture.

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The Interactive Verbal Network of Early Modern Theatre

The Case of John Marston

Regula Hohl Trillini

Abstract

To enrich characterisation and bond with audiences, Jacobethan playwrights included Classical tags, Bible verses and vernacular quotations in their work. Borrowings from other plays were particularly effective: a line of dialogue could ‘go viral’ straight from the stage. This verbal network, linking hundreds of early modern plays by one-liners, names and catchphrases, can now be investigated through the WordWeb-IDEM database, which contains over ten thousand text extracts that quote each other. The part of John Marston in this dramatic intertextuality is as yet under-researched. He saturated his writing with others’ words extensively and idiosyncratically; tracing these overlaps with Marston's unwitting ‘collaborators’ richly illustrates the research potential offered by the WordWeb-IDEM corpus and its search options.

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Intersectional Barriers Faced by Urban Somali Refugee Girls in Uganda

Manya Kagan and Winnie Nakatudde

Abstract

We based this article on a qualitative study that focuses on barriers to the integration of Somali Muslim urban refugee girls in Uganda. We were interested in how different ethnic and gender identities influence Somali refugee girls’ access to education and participation in society. Based on 75 semi-structured interviews with refugee children between 10 and 16 years of age in Kampala, we used constant comparative analysis to explore the intersectional experiences of Somali refugee girls. We found that they face specific gender-based discrimination and temporal and spatial restraints. This plays a key role in their ability to integrate into society. We conclude that it is important to avoid homogenizing refugee children's experiences and to incorporate intersectional analysis in studying integration.

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Interview with Translator Edward Gauvin

Aubrey Gabel

Abstract

In this interview, award-winning translator and author Edward Gauvin reflects on his practice as a translator of over four hundred graphic novels, including works by major French comics artists, illustrators, and scriptwriters, such as Gébé, Marjane Satrapi, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Emmanuel Guibert, Joann Sfar, Lewis Trondheim, Zeina Abirached, Christophe Blain, Philippe Druillet, Enki Bilal, Blutch, and so on. He discusses how he approaches the theoretical and practical problems he has encountered as a translator—from well-trodden topics like speech balloon fit to his dynamic understanding of genre fiction. He also offers an insider's perspective on translators’ (often precarious) position within the larger the comics industry and talks about his favourite translations, as well as his current and future projects.