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Leonardo Morlino

A decade ago, Regions & Cohesion started with an editorial article by Harlan Koff and Carmen Maganda, who proposed launching “a multilingual (English, French, and Spanish) and interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of the human and environmental impacts of regional integration as well as governance processes.”

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Harlan Koff, Carmen Maganda, Philippe De Lombaerde, Edith Kauffer, and Julia Ros Cuellar

The year 2020 has been challenging due to the different overlapping crises related to the COVID-19 pandemic. It is difficult to celebrate amidst the awareness of the worst global suffering in generations. Nonetheless, we consider ourselves extremely fortunate to commemorate ten years of Regions & Cohesion. It is not lost on us that our commemoration occurs amidst the above-cited crises. The inaugural issue of Regions & Cohesion (2011) was entitled “Regiones, régions, regions, everywhere. … But what about the people?” It noted that regional integration had proliferated throughout the 1990s and early 2000s to the point that some scholarship was suggesting that regions could one day substitute nation-states as prominent actors in global affairs. The opening editorial of this issue noted that successful region-building, at the supranational, transnational, and sub-national level was measured in terms of economic prosperity and political stability. The inaugural issue questioned this approach by studying how well regions respond to the needs of citizens. It asked whether regions serve the needs of their people or whether people serve the needs of regional economies. The coronavirus-related crises have merely emphasized many of the shortcomings of regions and regionalisms that this journal has documented throughout its first decade of existence.

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The Ukrainian divide

The power of historical narratives, imagined communities, and collective memories

Alina Penkala, Ilse Derluyn, and Ine Lietaert

Abstract

Ukraine is usually portrayed as a cleft country with a determining internal East–West divide. However, critical researchers in Ukrainian scholarship emphasize that the East–West paradigm fails to adequately reflect the complex reality of the Ukrainian society and its historical, linguistic, economic, and political mixture. This article deconstructs the origins and evolution of the eastern and western Ukrainian identities and argues that the current clash between the two regions should not be explained by linguistic and ethnic differences, geopolitical strategies, economic interests, or political gains but rather by symbolic geographies, historical myths, and political imaginations. As a consequence, Ukraine is unable to make clear choices about its geopolitical future and remains a liminal space of east and west, where the broader EU-centered and Russia-centered regions overlap.

Resumen

Ucrania suele ser retratada como un país caracterizado por una división interna determinante entre el este y el oeste. Sin embargo, algunos investigadores critican este paradigma Este-Oeste, que no refleja la compleja realidad de la sociedad ucraniana y su mezcla histórica, lingüística, económica y política. En este artículo se deconstruyen los orígenes y la evolución de las identidades ucranianas orientales y occidentales y se argumenta que el actual choque entre las dos regiones debería explicarse por el nuevo enfoque de geografías simbólicas, mitos históricos e imaginaciones políticas. En caso contrario, Ucrania no puede tomar decisiones claras sobre su futuro geopolítico y sigue siendo un espacio liminal de este y oeste, donde se superponen las regiones más amplias centradas en la UE y en Rusia, respectivamente.

Résumé

L'Ukraine est généralement présentée comme un pays avec une division interne Est-Ouest déterminante. Cependant, des chercheurs ukrainiens critiquent ce paradigme Est-Ouest, qui ne reflèterait pas la réalité complexe de la société ukrainienne ni son mélange historique, linguistique, économique et politique. Cet article déconstruit les origines et l'évolution des identités ukrainiennes orientales et occidentales et soutient que le conflit qui les oppose actuellement devrait être expliqué par la nouvelle approche des géographies symboliques, des mythes historiques et des imaginations politiques. A défaut, l'Ukraine est incapable de faire des choix clairs quant à son avenir géopolitique et reste un espace liminaire entre l'Est et l'Ouest, où les régions plus larges centrées sur l'UE et la Russie se chevauchent.

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Djénéba Traoré

Abstract

This article addresses the commitments of ECOWAS to citizen perspectives, and it underlines the added value of scientific research in the successful achievement of regional integration for West Africans. Specifically, it asks, how can the effectiveness and relevance of academic studies be used to enhance economic growth and social development? The creation of the West Africa Institute (WAI), a research center and think tank dedicated to regional integration and social transformations, was a major step in the search for adequate local and regional development solutions fitting with the West African context. WAI works with a participatory approach, promoting free debates among policy makers, open spaces for dialogue, and exchange among all social actors concerned with issues of regional integration and social transformation.

Resumen

Este artículo analiza los compromisos de la CEDEAO en términos de perspectivas ciudadanas y enfatiza el valor agregado de la investigación científica en el éxito de la integración regional para África Occidental. Específicamente, pregunta cómo la eficiencia y relevancia de los estudios universitarios pueden usarse para mejorar el crecimiento económico y el desarrollo social. La creación del Instituto de África Occidental (IAO) fue un paso importante en la búsqueda de soluciones para un desarrollo apropiado, adaptado a los contextos local y regional de África Occidental. La IAO trabaja con un enfoque participativo promoviendo el flujo libre de debates entre los tomadores de decisiones y espacios abiertos para el diálogo e intercambio entre todos los actores sociales interesados en temas de integración regional y transformación social.

Résumé

Cet article traite des engagements de la CEDEAO en matière de perspectives citoyennes et met l'accent sur la valeur ajoutée de la recherche scientifique dans la réussite de l'intégration régionale pour l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Plus précisément, il étudie comment l'efficacité et la pertinence de la recherche scientifique peuvent être utilisées pour améliorer la croissance économique et le développement social. La création de l'Institut de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (IAO), un centre de recherche et un groupe de réflexion dédié à l'intégration régionale et aux transformations sociales, a été une étape majeure dans la recherche de solutions de développement local et régional adéquates adaptées au contexte ouest-africain. L'IAO travaille avec une approche participative, favorisant la libre circulation des débats entre les décideurs et des espaces ouverts pour le dialogue et l'échange entre tous les acteurs sociaux concernés par les questions d'intégration régionale et de transformation sociale.

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Whither the people in the ASEAN Community?

Prospects in regional community building above and below the state

See Seng Tan

Abstract

The longstanding effort to develop a people-based regionalism in Southeast Asia has been shaped by an inherent tension between the liberal inclination to privilege the individual and the community under formation, on the one hand, and the realist insistence on the primacy of the state, on the other. This article explores the conditions and constraints affecting ASEAN's progress in remaking Southeast Asia into a people-focused and caring community in three areas: disaster management, development, and democratization (understood here as human rights). Arguably, the persistent gap in Southeast Asia between aspiration and expectation is determined less by political ideology than by the pragmatic responses of ASEAN member states to the forces of nationalism and protectionism, as well as their respective sense of local and regional responsibility.

Resumen

El esfuerzo histórico para desarrollar un regionalismo basado en las personas del sudeste de Asia ha estado marcado por una tensión fundamental entre la inclinación liberal de privilegiar el individuo y la comunidad y la insistencia realista sobre la primacía del estado. Este artículo explora las condiciones y limitaciones que afectan el progreso de la ASEAN en la reestructuración de Asia sudoriental en una comunidad centrada en el cuidado de las personas en: gestión de desastres, desarrollo y democratización (i.e., derechos humanos). La brecha persistente en el sudeste asiático entre la aspiración y la expectativa está determinada por las respuestas pragmáticas de los miembros de la ASEAN sometidos a las fuerzas del nacionalismo y proteccionismo, así como su respectivo sentido de responsabilidad local y regional.

Résumé

L'effort historique pour développer un régionalisme fondé sur les peuples en Asie du Sud-Est a été marqué par une tension fondamentale entre l'inclination libérale qui privilégie, d'une part, l'individu et la communauté et, d'autre part, l'insistance réaliste sur la primauté de l'État. Cet article explore les conditions et les contraintes qui nuisent aux progrès de l'ANASE dans le cadre d'une refonte de l'Asie du Sud-Est en une communauté centrée et attentive aux peuples dans trois domaines : la gestion des désastres, le développement et la démocratisation (en référence aux droits humains). Le fossé persistant en Asie du Sud-Est entre les aspirations et les attentes est vraisemblablement moins déterminé par l'idéologie politique que par les réponses pragmatiques des États membres de l'ANASE soumis aux forces du nationalisme et du protectionnisme ainsi que par leur sens respectif de la responsabilité locale et régionale.

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Hilla Dayan, Anat Stern, Roman Vater, Yoav Peled, Neta Oren, Tally Kritzman-Amir, Oded Haklai, Dov Waxman, Raphael Cohen-Almagor, Alan Dowty, and Raffaella A. Del Sarto

Yael Berda, Living Emergency: Israel's Permit Regime in the Occupied West Bank (Stanford, CA: Stanford Briefs, 2018), 152 pp. Paperback, $14.00.

Randall S. Geller, Minorities in the Israeli Military, 1948–58 (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2017), 238 pp. Hardback, $100.00. eBook, $95.00.

Yaacov Yadgar, Israel's Jewish Identity Crisis: State and Politics in the Middle East (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020), 226 pp. Paperback, $26.99. Kindle, $16.99.

Ian S. Lustick, Paradigm Lost: From Two-State Solution to One-State Reality (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019), 232 pp. Hardback, $27.50.

Ilan Peleg, ed., Victimhood Discourse in Contemporary Israel (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2019), 222 pp. Hardback, $90.00.

Sarah S. Willen, Fighting for Dignity: Migrant Lives at Israel's Margins (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019), 344 pp. Hardback, $89.95.

As'ad Ghanem and Mohanad Mustafa, Palestinians in Israel: The Politics of Faith after Oslo (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), 206 pp. Paperback, $29.99.

Daniel G. Hummel, Covenant Brothers: Evangelicals, Jews, and U.S.-Israeli Relations (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019), 352 pp. Hardback, $49.95.

Cary Nelson, Israel Denial: Anti-Zionism, Anti-Semitism, and the Faculty Campaign Against the Jewish State (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2019), 658 pp. Hardback, $45.00. Kindle, $7.99.

Letters to the Editors

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Nir Gazit and Yagil Levy

The murder of George Floyd by a police officer in the United States in May 2020 and the subsequent turmoil, as well as the violence against migrants on the US-Mexican border, have drawn major public and media attention to the phenomenon of police brutality (see, e.g., Levin 2020; Misra 2018; Taub 2020), which is often labeled as ‘militarization of police’. At the same time, in recent years military forces have been increasingly involved in policing missions in civilian environments, both domestically (see, e.g., Kanno-Youngs 2020; Schrader 2020; Shinkman 2020) and abroad. The convergence of military conduct and policing raises intriguing questions regarding the impact of these tendencies on the military and the police, as well as on their legitimacy.

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Paul L. Scham and Yoram Peri

This is the first of three special, guest-edited issues of ISR that will precede the retirement of the current editors from the journal. This issue, co-edited by Nir Gazit and Yagil Levy, takes on the unusual and seemingly somewhat arcane subject of military policing in Israel—that is, in the West Bank and on the Gaza border. The subject seemed somewhat arcane when we started planning it early in 2019, but now, as this issue reaches publication, we find that military policing is closely related to current events around the world, especially in the US, sometimes even competing with the coronavirus pandemic for the headlines. See the guest editors’ introduction immediately following this note for a fuller exposition before delving into the articles that follow.

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Yoram Peri

David Greenblum, From the Heroism of the Spirit to the Sanctification of Power: Power and Heroism in Religious Zionism between 1948 and 1968 (Tel Aviv: Open University, 2016).

Uri S. Cohen, The Security Style and the Hebrew Culture of War (Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 2017).

Dan Arev, Dying to Watch: War, Memory, and Television in Israel 1967–1991 (Tel Aviv: Resling, 2017).

Dalia Gavriely-Nuri, Tel Aviv Was Also Once an Arab Village: The Normalization of the Territories in Israeli Discourse, 1967 (Cambridge, MA: Israel Academic Press, 2017).

Nitza Ben-Dov, The Life of War: On the Military, Revenge, Loss, and War Consciousness in Israeli Prose (Jerusalem: Schocken Books, 2016).

Haya Milo, Songs Through the Barrel of the Gun: Israeli Soldiers’ Folk Songs (Tel Aviv: Open University, 2017).

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From Jewish Sentiments to Rational Exhortations

Battle Missives in the Israel Defense Forces

Netta Galnoor

Abstract

What exhortations were given to Israeli soldiers when sent to a possible sacrifice of their lives in war? This article introduces the genre of ‘battle missives’ written by Israel Defense Force (IDF) commanders as a prism to investigate this question. Battle missives are short texts sent to soldiers on the eve of battle to mobilize them to fight and to justify the risk to their lives. I employ narrative and hermeneutic methods to analyze an original database of 289 missives written between 1948 and 2014, which reveal the changing motivations and justifications preceding combat. My findings indicate a move from ‘Jewish sentimental’ exhortations that prevailed from 1948 until 1973 toward ‘rational’ exhortations between 1982 and 2014. This study locates battle missives as key to understanding the social norms and values relating to sacrifice in war, and the ways in which military commanders adjusted the language of sacrifice to reflect major transformations in both Israeli society and the IDF.