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Constructing Difference and Imperial Strategy

Contrasting Representations of Irish and Zionist Nationalism in British Political Discourse (1917–1922)

Maggy Hary

Abstract

The Irish struggle for independence (1917–1922) coincided with the beginnings of the mandate in Palestine, by which the British government sought to encourage the establishment of a Jewish National Home. Analogies between these two territories regularly surfaced in the papers of British officials and policy makers. Universally perceived as a paradigm of nationalism and insurrection, the Irish precedent colored the British understanding of Palestine. Essentialist representations of national groups such as the Irish or the Jews were also common as the British government lent support to various nationalist movements in order to further strategic objectives during the Great War. However, British attitudes toward Irish nationalism and Zionism varied widely. A careful examination of Arthur James Balfour’s representations of the Irish and Jewish nations reveals that nationalist ideology, far from relying on a coherent and systematic understanding of national groups, shifted depending on Britain’s geopolitical interests.

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Cècile Mathieu

Translator : Matthew Roy

Abstract

This article explores French imaginaries of different human groups between the world wars through a study of the Larousse universel of 1922. Dictionaries are generally assumed to be reliable tools for understanding language, reflecting a single, universally accepted, and neutral norm. In fact, as this article demonstrates, the Larousse universel of 1922 conveys an imaginary of otherness very specific to the time and place of its publication. Analyzing ethnonyms (names of peoples or ethnic groups) and demonyms or gentilics (names for residents or natives of a particular place) as well as the associated illustrations, I provide a typology of the dictionary’s treatment of the otherness of different peoples. Exoticism, colonization, war, and zoology emerge as the four themes around which human groups are concentrated. In particular, the predominance of the semantic feature warlike reveals the worry suggested by 20the “foreign” in the aftermath of World War I.

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Amélie Auzoux

Abstract

Cette étude consiste à montrer le rapport qu’entretient Valery Larbaud (1881–1957) à l’autre, étranger eth nique ou linguistique, entre les deux guerres. Écrivain voyageur, critique et traducteur français, Valery Larbaud s’est éloigné du concept abstrait de l’Homme, hérité des classiques, pour explorer la diversité concrète des hommes, des peuples et des langues. Mais dans un siècle où les discours scientistes classent la différence et divisent les peuples en autant d’espèces inégales, Larbaud a su maintenir l’unité biologique du genre. Ainsi se réfugie-t-il dans un universalisme chrétien où la croyance en l’unité fraternelle de la créature l’éloigne des tentations racistes.

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From Exoticism to Authenticity

Textbooks during French Colonization and the Modern Literature of Global Tourism

Claudine Moïse

Abstract

This article explores the French fascination with “the primitive” and “the exotic” in the post–World War I years through a study of representations of the French colonies in textbooks intended for primary and secondary schoolchildren. It then compares these representations with contemporary French-anguage tourist literature in Ontario, Canada, demonstrating continuities between these “exotic” representations of the colonial other and contemporary discourses centered on “authenticity” in the world of international tourism.

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L’ordre et le bonheur

Langues, nations, et territoires dans la réorganisation de l’Europe après la Première guerre mondiale

Sébastien Moret

Abstract

Avant même la fin de la Première guerre mondiale, des discussions s’ébauchèrent pour tenter d’imaginer l’Europe de l’après-guerre. Dans le cadre de cet article, nous nous intéresserons à un aspect particulier de ces discussions relatives à l’Europe nouvelle, la volonté affichée dans de nombreux textes d’aboutir à une réorganisation naturelle et scientifique du continent, avec la conviction sous-jacente qu’une telle réorganisation ne pouvait qu’aboutir à une paix durable, puisque chaque Etat aurait ainsi été à sa place légitime. Pour parvenir à cette cartographie parfaite de l’Europe, c’est avant tout à la linguistique, dans ses conceptions romantique et naturaliste, que l’on fit appel. Pourtant, au début du vingtième siècle, les idées romantiques et naturalistes sur la langue avaient été contredites et démenties au profit d’une conception sociale de la langue. Il faudra donc se demander pourquoi des idées scientifiques dépassées firent leur retour à ce moment particulier de l’histoire européenne.

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Nicole Abravanel

Abstract

Cet article se concentre sur le rÔle de la spatialité dans le monde des Juifs de Méditerranée orientale, qui est configuré comme un espace en réseaux. À travers le dissensusdes réceptions d’un ouvrage paru en 1925 (Joseph Pérez d’A. Navon) est mis en avant le fait que la spatialité doive être étudiée conjointement et comparativement tant du point de vue de l’observateur, que de l’observé, de façon à se départir de stéréotypes préconstruits relevantde l’opposition Orient/Occident. La parution de Joseph Pérez fut concomitante d’unegrande vogue littéraire exotique et orientaliste. Elle construisit l’image d’un juif “oriental,” qui se présente donc comme le refl et de cette opposition. L’étude du positionnement depersonnages tant chez A. Navon que dans la grande oeuvre d’Albert Cohen révèle la strate sous-jacente d’un espace articulé diffèremment tant au plan des représentations que del’espace effectif de circulation transterritoriale des acteurs sépharades.

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Romanticizing Difference

Identities in Transformation after World War I

Nadia Malinovich

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Ecaterina Lung

Abstract

• The aim of this article is to highlight the ways in which women were represented in Byzantine historical works from the sixth to the ninth centuries. These are probably the best sources for a comprehensive understanding of Byzantine society, since they are more vivid, more related to literature than the law codes or archival documents, and less biased than the clergy’s writings. Like “Barbarians,” women were thought to be inferior, irrational, highly emotional, and unable to control their impulses. Byzantine women did not seem to have an identity of their own; they were always thought to be a reflection of a male. Byzantine authors believed that the normal behavior for women was to remain secluded in their houses, but when they actually presented individual women, these were almost always those who did not confine themselves to women’s quarters. A woman’s main avenue of entering written history was to behave like a man, renouncing her gender and acting in an independent manner.

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Envisaging Eternity

Salian Women’s Religious Patronage

Nina Verbanaz

Abstract

The Salian rulers of the German realm in the eleventh century, like other medieval monarchs, maintained a complex relationship with the church. This article examines Salian women’s participation in this relationship. Through founding cathedrals, establishing monasteries, and making donations, Salian women performed traditional queenly activities and helped establish their dynasty as legitimate rulers of the empire. Charter and chronicle evidence reveal the Salian queens’ significant and acknowledged role in the foundation of Speyer Cathedral and their influence in the adoption of the imperial practice of dynastic burial of male and female rulers in its crypt. In addition to the relationship between the Salian women and Speyer Cathedral, this article looks to their charitable donations, attested in chronicles and letters, and discusses in particular Agnes of Poitou’s (d. 1077) deathbed donations. The women of the Salian dynasty created a family identity and memory through active participation in relationships with the church.

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Introduction

Women, Gender, Law, and Remembering Shona Kelly Wray

Linda E. Mitchell