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Cruci erunt eum inter duos latrones

Passion et mort de Louis XVI

Annie Duprat

Cet article se propose de faire un retour sur l'hypothèse des sept morts de Louis XVI formulée par Claude Langlois en 1993. Examinant la polémique menée, par les textes et les images, par les royalistes eux-mêmes, il démontre la force des références anglaises, d'une part, catholiques, d'autre part, dans l'inspiration de leurs auteurs. Le récit dramatisé des faits qui se sont déroulés à Versailles les 5 et 6 octobre 1789 contribue à nourrir l'imaginaire de la violence. Enfin, l'analyse fine de la caricature Grand combat à mort (1792) permet de saisir le rôle du bestiaire dans une caricature politique. De ce livre ressort une nouvelle image de Louis XVI: il est devenu un Christ des temps modernes, souffrant une Passion pour le salut de la France.

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Le Catholicisme au féminin

Thirty Years of Women's History

Rebecca Rogers

This article evaluates the influence of Claude Langlois's research on female religious congregations in the field of women's history. It explores how his central findings contributed to scholarship on the feminization of religion before generating a strain of revisionist historiography concerning the history of girls' education and the history of the nursing profession and health care. Specifically, Langois's work has led scholars to investigate the archives of religious congregations and evaluate the emergence of a professional ethos among teaching and nursing nuns. The article concludes with an analysis of his more recent writings on missionary congregations and how this also has inspired work on the gendering of religious mission.

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Quarante années de production historiographique (1971-2012)

Réflexions sur un parcours atypique

Claude Langlois

Que l’on me permette d’abord, et très sincèrement, de m’adresser à Tim et à Don, Timothy Tackett, un ami justement de quarante ans, et Donald Sutherland, que j’ai connu quand je fréquentais plus assidûment l’histoire de la Révolution et avec qui les liens d’amitié sont demeurés étroits malgré nos tendances identiques, bien que pour des raisons différentes, à la vie sédentaire, chacun de part et d’autre de l’Atlantique. Tim a eu l’initiative d’une séance consacrée à mes travaux, à Charleston en 2011, Don a rassemblé les textes alors préparés et en a sollicité d’autres pour ce numéro qui m’est consacré. Que l’un et l’autre soient vivement remerciés, ainsi que ceux qui ont accepté de dire du bien de moi avant même que je ne sois plus là pour les entendre.

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Sociabilité méridionale et vie religieuse, pour une poursuite de l'étude des confréries du Sud-Est français

Régis Bertrand

L'histoire des principales associations religieuses du Sud-Est-confréries "luminaires" (s'occupant d'un autel ou d'une chapelle), confréries de métier et confréries de pénitents-a connu un net essor au cours des années 1960-1980. Maurice Agulhon l'a liée à la notion de sociabilité méridionale, puis Marc Venard et Marie-Hélène Froeschlé-Chopard l'ont intégrée, dans le cadre du développement de l'histoire religieuse française, aux recherches sur les dévotions des laïcs par le dépouillement d'une source privilégiée, les visites pastorales, tournées d'inspection des évêques dans les paroisses. On propose ici la reprise de ces travaux, d'abord pour des types d'associations jusqu'ici mal prises en compte telles que les associations charitables, les congrégations séculières, ou les confréries novatrices des villes importantes, et aussi de renverser le point de vue en étudiant de l'intérieur ces groupes restreints, leurs membres et leur action dans la société.

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The Work of Claude Langlois

An Overview

Timothy Tackett

This article is conceived as an overview of the career and scholarship of Claude Langlois. It emphasizes the breadth, diversity, and volume of his work, giving particular attention to four fields in which Langlois made especially important contributions. These fields to some extent mark four phases of his scholarly career-although not necessarily in chronological order. These are historical religious sociology, the French Revolution, women and religion, and theology and spirituality. The conclusion stresses the originality and independence of thought displayed by Langlois throughout his career.

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Heroism, Exoticism, and Violence

Representing the Self, “the Other,“ and Rival Empires in the English and French Illustrated Press, 1880-1905

H. Hazel Hahn

The English and French illustrated press between 1880 and 1905 depicted Europeans as superior to non-Europeans and rarely questioned the colonizing right of Europeans. The illustrated press, such as news magazines The Illustrated London News, The Graphic, and L'Illustration, as well as the newspaper Le Petit Journal, was consumed by colonial news, reported as a series of crises, battles, and frontier troubles, and represented colonial officers and soldiers as heroes. However, a series of imperial rivalries increasingly undermined any collective “European“ understanding of the imperial mission. By implicitly and explicitly questioning and criticizing other empires' motives and capacity for colonization, the press came to portray colonization as a power dynamic. Heroism was increasingly tied to nationalism rather than to broader moral principles. The rhetoric and imagery of imperialism were thus fraught with paradoxes and double standards. The press coverage also reveals close links between war and tourism imaginaries.

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Introduction

The editors have taken this opportunity to feature four articles that investigate the ways in which women are embodied by, or embody in themselves, the social, cultural, or political ethos of a particular era or region. Although very different in both topic and approach, these articles discuss radically new ways of approaching discussions of women, their sexuality, and notions of the feminine in historical discourse.

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Intuiting Gods

Creed and Cognition in the Fourth Century

Marilyn Dunn

Combining history, theology, and the cognitive study of religion, this article offers a new interpretation of the origins and purpose of the fourth-century Trinitarian theology known as Homoianism, suggesting that it aimed to create an “entry-level“ Christianity as a first step in gradually easing polytheists into Christianity. It highlights the polemical nature of Homoianism's characterization as “Arianism,“ and examines the beliefs of Homoianism's proponents, including those of Ulfila, the “apostle of the Goths.“ This article suggests that the Homoian view of the Trinity attempted to map non-Christian intuitions of divinity onto the Christian doctrine of God. It points to Homoianism's Western origins on the Roman Empire's strategically important Danubian frontier, arguing that a Homoian creed should be seen not only in the wider context of the “Arian Controversy,“ but also as part of attempts to ensure the peaceful Romanization of the Goths.

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The Kids Are All Right But the Lesbians Aren't

The Illusion of Progress in Popular Film

Vicki L. Eaklor

The film The Kids Are All Right, centered on a lesbian couple and their two teenage children, was released in 2010 following a media blitz selling it as a groundbreaking film. Many queer viewers (like this author) eagerly awaited this supposed step forward in lesbian representation, only to be disappointed once again by mainstream stereotypes and tropes. This article takes a close look at the film against the backdrop of lesbian images and themes in “Hollywood“ films, particularly in the last twenty years, and argues that continuities, while sometimes more subtle, override the illusion of progress in portraying lesbians. Finally, there is speculation about why genuine change in mainstream film may be impossible under current societal and economic systems.

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A New Man for the New Woman? Men, Marriage, and Feminism in the Belle Epoque

Rachel Mesch

This article considers the role of men in a form of feminist expression promoted in women's magazines and novels during the Belle Epoque. “Belle Epoque literary feminism,“ as I have termed it, was characterized by a desire to reconcile gender equality with traditional gender roles, outside of political channels; it was also, I argue, defined by male participation. Focusing on a widespread effort to modernize marriage, the article examines both men and women's discussions of marital equality in the influential women's magazines Femina and La Vie Heureuse; it then considers the role assigned to men in realizing feminist marriage in two popular women's novels, Marcelle Tinayre's La Rebelle and Louise Marie Compain's L'Un vers l'autre.