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The Apian Pharmacopeia

Chloe Silverman

Abstract

This article describes the pharmaceuticalization of honeybee health, a process that has accelerated alongside growing beekeeper concerns about unexplained colony losses over the past nearly two decades. Despite their uncertainty about the causes of colony loss and the role of pesticide exposures in rendering bees vulnerable, many entomologists agree that controlling populations of parasitic mites in bee colonies is the key to bees’ survival, making mite infestations a primary target for medical interventions. The pharmaceuticalization of honeybee health means that beekeepers need to track drug administration to prevent toxic interactions, avoid overuse, and reduce resistance. This means not only managing those chemicals intentionally applied, but also those ferried in from outside the colony, notably pesticides and fungicides. Medicalizing a range of husbandry practices like supplemental feeding and mite treatment has become a way to regulate beekeepers’ use of medicine as well as encourage it, making medicalization, paradoxically, a means of encouraging restraint.

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An Attack on the Rule of Law in Israel

Suzie Navot and Guy Lurie

Abstract

This article analyzes the implications of the proposals of the Minister of Justice and the Chair of the Knesset's Constitution Committee to overhaul the judiciary of Israel. These proposals, if legislated, will undermine basic principles of democracy, the rule of law, and the protection of human rights. In the absence of a complete formal constitution and its relatively weak system of checks and balances, Israel has developed several institutions that protect the rule of law and human rights, including a Supreme Court with the power of judicial review of legislation; a balanced and professional system for selecting judges; a strong legal civil service, with a relatively independent attorney general. The so-called legal reforms deal specifically with these institutions, and seek to weaken or annul them. As such, this judicial overhaul is tantamount to a revolutionary attempt to change the regime and would undermine the democratic character of Israel.

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Avoidable Deaths in the COVID-19 Pandemic

Quantifying Responsibility in Brazil

Alexandre de Paiva Rio Camargo and Eugênia Motta

Abstract

Since March 2020, a huge quantity of data, rankings, charts and tables has been informing the ways we speak and act in the pandemic. This article focusses on the centrality of numbers in a major national controversy: the quantification of avoidable deaths by COVID-19. Launched by scientists who first addressed the omissions of Donald Trump and Jair Bolsonaro in the management of the pandemic, estimations of avoidable deaths rapidly transitioned into the political arena with the installation of a parliamentary enquiry committee on the coronavirus crisis. The article examines the emergence and development of these estimates, as well as the role they have played and continue to play in constructing the pandemic as passed as they vie for a place in the memory of the COVID-19 crisis in the present.

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The “awkwardnesses” of aid and exchange

Food cooperative practices in austerity Britain

Celia Plender

Abstract

Self-help and mutual aid have been at the heart of the consumer cooperative movement and its response to food insecurity since its inception. Yet how these terms are conceptualized and practiced in contemporary food co-ops often has more to do with their individual histories, ideologies, and the values of those involved than it does the history of the cooperative movement. Drawing on ethnographic examples from two London-based food co-ops with different backgrounds, this article explores how each enacts ideals of aid and exchange. It argues that the context of austerity creates “awkwardnesses” between and within personal values and organizational structures in the face of inequality, leading to blurred boundaries between different models of aid and exchange and the forms of moral accounting that these entail.

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Backsliding without Democracy

The Effects of Israel's Democratic Backsliding on the Palestinian Territories

Alon Burstein

Abstract

This article analyzes the effects of Israel's democratic backsliding on the Palestinian population in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. While research on democratic backsliding focuses on the erosion of liberal democratic features and how this influences democracies’ citizenry, Israel's composite regime offers a unique setting: an established (albeit weakened) liberal democracy ‘within the Green Line’ alongside an established occupation devoid of democratic features ‘beyond the Green Line.’ Exploring this, I analyze how Israel's belligerent occupation has at times been restrained by the ‘democratic side’ of the country, resulting in Palestinians indirectly benefiting from Israel's democracy while not having democratic rights themselves. The article thus demonstrates how Palestinians may be among the first populations to suffer from democratic backsliding while themselves being devoid of democratic rights.

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Before the Last Car

The Early Queer History of Mexico City’s Metro

A. W. Strouse

This article explores the early queer history of the Mexico City Metro (from its planning stages in the late 1960s—and especially the subway’s embeddedness in the political and sexual repression emblematized by the student massacres of 1968 and 1971—through its first decade of operation). Drawing evidence from a variety of sources—literary works, essays and chronicles, newspaper accounts, and popular music, as well as from biographies of the planners of the Metro—the article argues that, from its inception, the Metro was understood by the state and by sexual-political dissidents as a mechanism for political and sexual control. But as the Metro more efficiently connected upper-class neighborhoods with of barrios populares, the Metro gradually became a zone of queer rebellion.

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Belonging in the “Big Picture”

(In)authentic Recognition of Wounded Veterans in Denmark

Eva G. Krause, Jan Christensen, and Mette N. Svendsen

What makes recognition of veterans “authentic,” and how does authentic recognition shape and establish “war veteranship” among wounded veterans? Through ethnographic fieldwork and interviews, this article explores how Danish wounded veterans experience and evaluate official recognition ceremonies. We demonstrate that recognition ceremonies alone do not establish effective recognition. Rather, for recognition to be perceived as authentic, it must be mutual, grounded in the moral originality of the recognizers, and manifested in words as well as actions. Authentic recognition, we argue, establishes a reciprocal relationship between wounded veterans and the state, which positions veterans as valuable contributors to society. Conversely, the absence of authentic recognition generates experiences of misrecognition and invisibility, leading in some cases to wounded veterans feeling “like immigrants” in their own country.

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Biopolitical Leviathan

Understanding State Power in the Era of COVID-19 through the Weberian-Foucauldian Theory of the State

Lars Erik Løvaas Gjerde

Abstract

The coronavirus pandemic made the biopolitics of infection control the core object of states around the world. Globally, states governed spheres usually free of state control, implementing various restrictions, closing down society in the process. This is possible due to the state's capacities to act through and over society, grounded in the state's powers. I argue that while the pandemic has led to useful and interesting state-centric Foucauldian literature on the politics of COVID-19, this literature has not fully taken the theoretical lessons of the pandemic into account. Explicating these lessons, I discuss how the pandemic invites us to reconsider the Foucauldian approach to the state. The purpose of this article is to combine the Foucauldian theory of power with a Weberian state theory based on Michael Mann's work on the state and the sources of power, so to lay the foundations for a Weberian-Foucauldian theory of the state.

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Book Reviews

Enrico Beltramini, Elisabeth C. Macknight, and Eloise Grey

François Hartog. Chronos: The West Confronts Time. New York: Columbia University Press, 2022. Chapter endnotes and index. 285 pp. (Hb) ISBN 978-0-231- 20312-8; (eBook) ISBN 978-0-231-55488-6. Hb $35; eBook $34.99.

Neil Kenny, ed. Literature, Learning and Social Hierarchy in Early Modern Europe. Proceedings of the British Academy no. 246. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2022. Index. 21 b/w ill. 291 pp. (Hb) ISBN 978-0-19-726733-2. $100

Arunima Datta. Waiting on Empire: A History of Indian Travelling Ayahs in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2023. Bibliography and index. 150 b/w ill. 320 pp. (Hb) ISBN: 978-0-19-284823-9; $45.

Gunnar Broberg. The Man Who Organized Nature: The Life of Linnaeus. Trans. Anna Paterson. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2023. Bibliography and index. 55 b/w ill. 17 color plates. 512 pp. (Hb) ISBN 978-0-691-21342-2. $39.95.

Open access

Book Reviews

Brodie Theis and Jonny Johnston

Richard Hil, Kristen Lyons and Fern Thompsett (2021), Transforming Universities in the Midst of Global Crisis: A University for the Common Good London: Routledge, 180pp., ISBN 978-0-367-897-833

Donna Hurford and Andrew Read (2022), Bias-aware Teaching, Learning and Assessment St Albans: Critical Publishing, 104pp., ISBN: 9781914171895