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Contested Citizenship

Public Schooling and Political Changes in Early Nineteenth Century Switzerland

Ingrid Brühwiler

Abstract

This article examines public education and the establishment of the nation-state in the first half of the nineteenth century in Switzerland. Textbooks, governmental decisions, and reports are analyzed in order to better understand how citizenship is depicted in school textbooks and whether (federal) political changes affected the image of the “imagined citizen” portrayed in such texts. The “ideal citizen” was, first and foremost, a communal and cantonal member of a twofold society run by the church and the secular government, in which nationality was depicted as a third realm.

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Designing Multimodal Texts about the Middle Ages

Eva Insulander, Fredrik Lindstrand, and Staffan Selander

Abstract

Multimedial and multimodal communication arouse interest in many fields of research today. By contrast, little attention is paid to multimodality in relation to designs for learning, especially in relation to representations of knowledge on an aggregated level. By analyzing three multimodal texts about the Middle Ages, including a textbook, a film series and a museum exhibition, this article provides insight into the role of multimodal designs for learning in a school context.

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Experiencing, Using, and Teaching History

Two History Teachers’ Relations to History and Educational Media

Robert Thorp

Abstract

How do two Swedish secondary school teachers relate to and make sense of history via their experiences and educational media? This article seeks to gain knowledge about history education by analyzing two teachers’ narratives of their personal experiences of the Cold War and classroom observations of the teachers in practice. The article finds that the teachers’ narrations of personal experiences and observed teaching resemble the dominant historical culture of the Cold War in Swedish education. On this basis, the author discusses the importance of the critical awareness of historical culture in order to further a complex understanding of history.

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The Visual Construction of the Myth of the Albanian National Leader

Denis Vuka

Abstract

This article examines the visual construction of the myth of the Albanian national leader in history textbooks. By applying visual social semiotics, it explores the function and usefulness of this myth during the critical years of Albania’s self-isolation from 1978 to 1990. Depicted in recurring episodes that were decisive for the existence of the national community, a capable leader emerges as its savior. His figure is perceived as a symbol of unity and as the only actor able to pave the way toward a bright future. This article argues that this myth served to legitimize power and secure social cohesion.

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War Memories and Online Encyclopedias

Framing 30 June 1941 in Wikipedia

Mykola Makhortykh

Abstract

This article examines how digital media interact with collective memories and teaching practices by exploring a selection of Wikipedia articles that describe the capture of Lviv by the Germans on 30 June 1941. This event constitutes an important episode in the history of Ukraine and a complex case of violence that produced several controversies concerning the national historiographies of the Second World War in the post-Soviet region. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative metrics, this article investigates how the event is represented in different language versions of Wikipedia and assesses what kind of memory is produced by each of them.

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Wie mit Bildern Geschichte gemacht wird

Visuelle Darstellungen des Nationalsozialismus im Geschichtsschulbuch der DDR

Inga Kahlcke

Abstract

Dieser Beitrag untersucht die bildliche Repräsentation des Nationalsozialismus in Geschichtsschulbüchern der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik (DDR) von 1960 bis 1988 mit inhaltsanalytischen Verfahren. Dabei kann gezeigt werden, dass die Schulbuchabbildungen die DDR-eigene Deutung des Nationalsozialismus plausibilisieren und legitimieren. Nationalsozialistische Täterschaft wird durch Bilder zumeist mit dem Wirken von “Kapitalisten” in Verbindung gebracht, während bei den Verfolgten eine hierarchische Abstufung zwischen “antifaschistischen” und jüdischen Opfern erfolgt. Lediglich in der letzten Ausgabe vor dem Ende der DDR findet sich eine leichte Verschiebung des Narrativs. Zudem wird unter Bezug auf den geschichtsmethodischen Diskurs in der DDR untersucht, wie die Didaktisierung der Bilder im Schulbuch zur Vermittlung dieses Deutungsmusters beiträgt.

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Introduction

Textbooks in Periods of Political Transition after the Second World War

Kira Mahamud Angulo and Anna Ascenzi

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Militaristic Discourse in Secondary Education History Textbooks during and after the Soeharto Era

Hieronymus Purwanta

Abstract

This study examines the year-to-year development of militaristic discourse in Indonesian secondary education history textbooks since 1975. Historical descriptions written since the fall of Soeharto’s military regime and its replacement by a civilian government in 1998 tend to emphasize Indonesia’s military history and pay little attention to its civilian leadership. To what degree did political change influence the production of historical discourse in recent textbooks in Indonesia? This article attempts to answer this question by applying Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to textual sources, in order to expose their historical and socio-cultural dimensions. The results show that in the post-Soeharto era, militaristic perspectives continue to dominate discourse production in history textbooks, denying the role of civilian leadership. This glorification of the military demonstrates that the Indonesian army continues to influence the country’s history textbook production in the modern era.

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(Re)presentations of Islam in Albanian History Textbooks from 1990 to 2013

Enis Sulstarova

Abstract

This article investigates the role of Islam in representations of the self and the other in the contemporary Albanian national discourse, on the basis of an analysis of history textbooks published in postcommunist Albania between 1990 and 2013, focusing specifically on texts used in pre-university education. Even after the dissolution of the Socialist Republic of Albania in 1991, Islam in Albania continued to be associated with concepts derived from the socialist era, including the primacy of the nation as well as Eurocentrism and secularism, which were seen as the pinnacle of modernity.

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Spanish Immigrants in Basque Social Science Textbooks from the Late Franco Era to the Transition to Democracy

Ander Delgado

Abstract

In this article I explore the ways in which migrants from other parts of Spain to the Basque Country are portrayed in Basque social science textbooks published in the Basque Country between the end of Franco’s dictatorship and the period of the transition to democracy. I elucidate the role attributed to immigrants, who were culturally and linguistically distinct from Basque society, by educators concerned about the survival of Basque culture and the Basque language. In addition, the article addresses strategies proposed by members of the Basque education sector and adopted in order to facilitate integration during this period.