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Islam, Travel, and Learning

A Case Study on Indonesian Muslim Student Diasporas in Saudi Arabia

Sumanto Al Qurtuby

Abstract

This article focuses on the study of the relationship between Islam, travel, and learning by conducting a case study on Indonesian Muslim students who studied (or are studying) in Saudi Arabia. Specifically, it examines the changing dynamics of these students who traveled, immigrated to, and studied in Saudi Arabia in search of knowledge from previous centuries to the contemporary era. This article shows that Indonesian students in this peninsula are deeply plural and complex, far from being a monolithic group in terms of social background, religious affiliation, political orientation, major field of study, and motive of their study, among other factors. Thus, the present article aims at demystifying and challenging the common beliefs and narratives which hold that Saudi Arabia–trained Indonesian students have been exporters of Islamist intolerance, radicalism, or even terrorism.

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Leçon 1 du cours

« Théorie spéciale des sanctions »

François Pizarro Noël

Résumé

La publication de la leçon inédite du cours de physiques des mœurs et du droit de 1899 sur les sanctions pénales permet de mieux comprendre la typologie des sanctions et responsabilités que Durkheim planifiait de déployer dans le cadre de cette dernière partie de l'éthique objective consacrée à la théorie spéciale des sanctions. Nous nous attardons plus particulièrement, dans cet article, sur la réfutation de la définition de la peine par la douleur et sur les arguments que Durkheim amène pour corriger la définition de la peine qui figure dans la DTS. Nous présentons également l'ébauche d'une typologie des sanctions négatives qui figure dans cette leçon et qui montre que la définition sociologique des sanctions pénales passe par leur comparaison avec d'autres sanctions négatives, tant répressives (publiques et privées) que restitutives (civiles). Enfin, nous soulignons l'intérêt qu'il y a à explorer certains éléments du texte, notamment les sanctions positives et l'éthique subjective qui, bien qu'ils y soient peu développés, permettraient sans doute de parfaire notre compréhension de la sociologie de la morale de Durkheim.

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Les deux catégories cachées de La Doctrine de Durkheim

Le programme de sociologie de la connaissance d'Halbwachs

Jean-Christophe Marcel

Résumé

La Doctrine de Durkheim, texte écrit par Halbwachs en 1918, nous éclaire sur la filiation intellectuelle qui les relie l'un à l'autre. En effet, il met en évidence un intérêt qui va s'avérer durable dans l'œuvre d'Halbwachs : la sociologie de la connaissance, dans la droite ligne de ce que Durkheim présente dans la conclusion des Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Or si Halbwachs insiste sur la portée de l'œuvre de Durkheim en matière de sociologie religieuse dans le domaine de la connaissance, c'est aussi le seul point sur lequel il se permet dans le texte d'adjoindre un développement personnel, preuve supplémentaire qu'il lui accorde de l'importance. Il est d'accord avec Durkheim pour affirmer que la connaissance consiste en un ensemble de classifications dont l'origine est sociale, et qu'ainsi la pensée conceptuelle répond au même besoin que la pensée capable déjà de classer, des primitifs, si bien qu'entre leur pensée logique et la nôtre, la différence n'est que de degrés et pas de nature. Il s'accorde aussi à dire, à la suite de Durkheim et Mauss, que l'évolution fait passer de classifications totémiques à des classifications spatiales, et à la pensée conceptuelle contemporaine, mais selon lui sans qu'on en sache beaucoup plus sur le passage du 2e au 3e stade de cette évolution. Aussi Halbwachs esquisse-t-il, en guise de complément, un élément de réponse pour combler ce vide, et, ce faisant, révèle une sensibilité qui annonce ses travaux futurs. Aux catégories de la pensée (espace, temps, causalité etc.) déjà étudiées par Durkheim, il ajoute celles de changement et d'individu, dont il va faire usage dans ses travaux ultérieurs pour expliquer ce mouvement de civilisation qu'est le passage des sociétés rurales aux sociétés urbaines.

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Like A Braided River: Rethinking Migration Through The Personal Essay

Andonis Piperoglou

Diane Comer. The Braided River: Migration and the Personal Essay (Otago University Press, 2019), 304 pp., ISBN 9781988531533, $35 (paperback).

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Making Sense of the Human-Nature Relationship

A Reception Study of the “Nature Is Speaking” Campaign on YouTube

Ulrika Olausson

Abstract

Gaining knowledge about laypeople's representations of nature is crucial to meeting the sustainability challenges ahead. However, the ways laypeople discursively construct nature in digital settings have received scant attention. Guided by Stuart Hall's theory of encoding/decoding and multimodal critical discourse analysis, this study aims to contribute knowledge about the ways laypeople construct the human-nature relationship on social media. This is accomplished through a reception study of YouTube users’ discussions about two of the films in the campaign “Nature Is Speaking.” The results show that the human-nature dichotomy largely prevails notwithstanding the pluralist nature of YouTube users’ interpretations, but also indicate the (embryonic) potential of social media to open up for a politics revolving around new visions of the socio-environmental future.

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More than Darkness Preservation

The Importance of the Dark, Star-Filled Skies in Urban Areas

Yee-Man Lam

Abstract

Enveloped in artificial light, many urban dwellers have never experienced real darkness. Seeing this as a loss, scholars and organizations have initiated discussions on light and darkness and advocated the preservation of the dark skies. This article aims to further this study by emphasizing the importance of the stars. Instead of studying lights, stars, and darkness ethnographically, the article examines the ideas of stars and darkness in Thierry Cohen's photographs and two of Vincent van Gogh's paintings. This article will suggest that the dark, star-filled skies represented in van Gogh's paintings provide a visual blueprint of what the article calls the “star-lit cities,” which goes beyond a simple preservation of darkness, and may be significant in driving vital changes in combating the current environmental crises.

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On Halbwachs's Sociology of Knowledge Program

The Two Hidden Categories of ‘La doctrine d'Émile Durkheim’

Jean-Christophe Marcel

Abstract

‘La doctrine d'Émile Durkheim’, sheds light on the intellectual connection between Durkheim and Halbwachs. Halbwachs agrees with Durkheim that knowledge consists of a set of classifications whose origin is social, and that evolution moves from totemic classifications to spatial classifications and contemporary conceptual thinking, but without much knowledge of the passage from the second to the third stage of this evolution. Halbwachs sketches, as a complement, an element of response to fill this void, and in doing so, announces his future work. To the categories of thought studied by Durkheim, he adds those of change and of the individual, which he will use in his later works to explain the movement of civilization. In doing so, he proves his involvement in developing the durkheimian program onsociology of knowledge.

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Quest for Identity in Parvin Shere's Pearls from the Ocean

Urooj Akailvi

Abstract

This article analyzes the means of self-representation, the conflicts between self/other, and the conscious and unconscious quest for identity by the writer. It attempts to understand travel narratives as being about the journey undertaken in a quest for identity by the traveler/writer, wherein apart from the physical journey of the author the emphasis is laid on the emotional and psychological journey within the author.

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‘Rates of Exchange’ Rather than Intellectual Exchanges

An Unknown Correspondence between Marcel Mauss and Victor Branford (1923–24) about the Franco-British Relationship in Interwar Sociology

Baudry Rocquin

Abstract

The newly found exchange of letters between Marcel Mauss and Victor Branford dated 1926 testifies to the active exchanges between both their traditions. Durkheimian sociology owed a great deal to the Branford-Geddes network of colleagues across the Channel, not less than a funding of the republication of their iconic journal, the Année sociologique. On the other hand, Branford was far from apologetic about his own tradition of thought and even went as far as to criticize the Institut Français de Sociologie in the 1920s. All this shows the enduring links between both countries in the field of sociology, contrary to what has often been held.

Résumé

Un nouvel échange de lettres entre Marcel Mauss et le sociologue britannique Victor Branford daté de 1926 a été retrouvé. Il dépeint les relations actives qui existèrent entre deux traditions qu'on a souvent l'habitude d'opposer. Or, il faut noter que c'est grâce au financement par le réseau de Branford et Geddes que Mauss parvint à reprendre la publication de l'Année sociologique en France. De son côté, Branford ne se prive pas d'adresser quelques piques à ses collègues durkheimiens orthodoxes à l'Institut Français de Sociologie dans les années 20. Tout cela montre la force des liens qui unissent les deux pays en sociologie, contrairement à ce qu'on lit souvent.

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Symbolizing Destruction

Environmental Activism, Moral Shocks, and the Coal Industry

Alison E. Adams, Thomas E. Shriver, and Landen Longest

Abstract

Emotions can play an important role in the perception of grievances, yet we know little about how environmentalists strategically utilize emotions to bolster activism and garner support. Drawing on social movement and environmental sociological research, we analyze how moral shocks can be used to mobilize activists against environmentally destructive activities. We study the case of Libkovice, Czech Republic, where environmentalists battled against the coal industry to save a city from being razed to access coal reserves. The data come from in-depth interviews, organizational and documentary video, and archival documents. Findings indicate that environmentalists drew upon symbols of destruction, such as threats to the local church, to fuel anger and mobilize the campaign. Results show how symbolic environmental campaigns can serve as beacons for future protest.