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Quoi de neuf sur Mauss ?

« Quae tota nostra est »

Nicolas Sembel

Jean-François Bert. L’Atelier de Mauss, Paris : CNRS Éditions, 2012, 271 pp.

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Reading Durkheim in Philosophical Context

Warren Schmaus

Giovanni Paoletti. Durkheim et la philosophie: Répresentation, réalité et lien social. Paris: Classiques Garnier, 2012, 474 pp.

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The Russian Career of Durkheim's Sociology of Religion and Les Formes Élémentaires

Contribution to a Study

Alexander Gofman

In tracking Durkheim's Russian career, this article first explores Russian sociology during his lifetime, emphasizing its internationalism and noting Russian-related reviews in the Année sociologique. It then focuses on the issue of religion, to compare his approach with contemporary Russian trends, especially bogoyiskatielstvo (god quest) and bogostroyitielstvo (god building). In concluding with the Russian reception of his last great work, Les Formes élémentaires, it contrasts the circumstances before and after his death, the year of the Bolshevik Revolution, and especially compares the responses of Nikolai Berdyaev and Pitirim Sorokin.

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Book Reviews

Jean Terrier, Dominique Merillé, A. M. C. Waterman, Susan Stedman Jones, Nick Allen, Mike Gane, and Caitlin Meagher

Émile Durkheim. Hobbes à l’agrégation. Un cours d’Émile Durkheim suivi par Marcel Mauss, edited by Jean-François Bert, Paris: Editions EHESS (Collection ‘Audiographie’), 2012, 64 pp.

Émile Durkheim, Les Règles de la méthode sociologique, édition établie par Jean-Michel Berthelot et présentée par Laurent Mucchielli, Paris, Flammarion (coll. « Champs classiques », n° 879), 2010, 336 pp.

Philippe Steiner. Durkheim and the Birth of Economic Sociology, translated by Keith Tribe, Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2011, viii + 249 pp.

Jean Terrier. Visions of the Social: Society as a Political Project in France 1750–1950, Brill: Leiden and Boston, 2011, xxxi + 216pp.

Jean-François Bert. Marcel Mauss, Henri Hubert et la sociologie des religions. Penser et écrire à deux, Paris: La Cause des Livres, 2012, 171 pp.

Derek Robbins. French Post-War Social Theory, London: Sage, 2012, 193 pp.

Anni Greve. Sanctuaries of the City: Lessons from Tokyo, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011, 206 pp.

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Découverte d'une archive

l'« Esquisse d'une théorie de la magie »

Jean-François Bert

Dans une livraison précédente de la revue, nous avions évoqué le cas particulier des archives de Marcel Mauss, désormais conservées à l’IMEC. Ce fonds d’archives retrace une grande part de la vie savante et politique de Marcel Mauss, mais également de celle d’Henri Hubert, son « jumeau de travail » décédé en 1927 et dont Mauss récupéra une partie des archives. Ces documents lui servirent, entre autres, pour terminer la publication, dans la collection « L’évolution de l’Humanité » dirigée par Henri Berr, des deux volumes que Hubert consacra à l’histoire des Celtes et des Germains (Bert, 2010).

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Durkheim's 'Dualism of Human Nature'

Personal Identity and Social Links

Giovanni Paoletti

Durkheim's 'Dualism of Human Nature' (1914) is the last scientific work by him published in his lifetime. This circumstance, and the subject of the essay, can suggest it is the definitive exposition of his philosophical view of human nature as homo duplex. But readers do not agree about the description of this view. What kind of dualism has he in mind, and is he consistent about it throughout his work? The problem is that his essay gives different meanings to the doubleness of human nature and combines them in a complex model of explanation. Reconstructing this model can throw new light on what is really at stake in Durkheim's text and on the nature of the dualism he upheld at the end of his career.

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Durkheim's Lost Argument (1895–1955)

Critical Moves on Method and Truth

Stéphane Baciocchi and Jean-Louis Fabiani

Durkheim’s course of twenty lectures on pragmatism, given at the Sorbonne during the academic year 1913 to 1914, has been regularly reassessed, particularly since an apparently complete English translation (1983). Far from being marginal in Durkheim’s work, as claimed by Steven Lukes (1973), the lectures seem central for understanding Durkheim’s epistemology and methodology. This was initially set out in his two doctoral theses – the main one on the division of labour (1893) – then substantially reworked in later writings, particularly Les Formes élémentaires (1912). Unfortunately, we know the lectures only from a posthumous reconstruction by the faithful Durkheimian and sympathiser with Marxism, the philosopher Armand Cuvillier, who published Pragmatisme et sociologie in 1955, drawing on two anonymous sets of ‘student notes’ that later disappeared. It is thus difficult to know the scope and effect of Cuvillier’s own rewriting of these notes. Moreover, he made his reconstruction forty-two years after the actual presentation by Durkheim at the Sorbonne. The sociological context in France was by this time entirely different. The most prominent sociologists, such as Jean Stoetzel, were outspoken anti-Durkheimians in their demand for an empirical knowledge clearly severed from any philosophical foundation. The Durkheimians who tried to pursue the founder’s endeavour in the interwar period were dead. The very first reviews of Cuvillier’s edition indicate that Durkheimianism seemed to belong to the intellectual past, at least since the death of Marcel Mauss in 1950.

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Échange, don, réciprocité

l'acte de 'donner' chez Simmel et Durkheim

Luca Guizzardi and Luca Martignani

This focuses on a key topic for comparison of two masters of sociological thought, Georg Simmel and Émile Durkheim: the question of giving in the context of social exchange. Durkheim deals with the issue in introducing the concept of organic solidarity, based on the division of social labour and implying the interdependence of individuals. This representation of solidarity links with the interest in credit and debt relations in Simmel's philosophy of money and with a perspective in which reciprocity is conceived as one of the main sociological functions involved in the representation of social bonds. After a comparison of Durkheim and Simmel's theories of reciprocity, a specific case discussed is the mortgage, conceived as a paradigm of the shape assumed by the immaterial reality of reciprocity in institutional and everyday life.

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From Ideas to Ideals

Effervescence as the Key to Understanding Morality

Raquel Weiss

My main aim is to show that Les Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse is a crucial work for understanding Durkheim's moral theory. A fundamental point is that he locates the 'ideal' at the core of morality. Accordingly, explaining the genesis of morality depends on establishing how he conceptualizes the ideal and traces its origins. Searching for the deepest roots of the ideal - basically understood as a sacred idea - takes us to the work's key concern with effervescence, and to issues it raises in the case of the modern world.

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Leçon inaugurale

Pragmatisme et Sociologie Inaugural Lecture: Pragmatism and Sociology, 1913

Émile Durkheim

La prise en note du cours de Durkheim a été fidèlement retranscrite et révisée depuis le manuscrit conservé à la Bibliothèque Victor Cousin de la Sorbonne. Nous indiquons par des chevrons la pagination originale de ce manuscrit. Les mots ou segments de phrase soulignés dans l’original ont été rendus par des italiques, les titres par du gras. Nos hésitations sur la transcription sont signalées par un point d’interrogation et placées entre crochets « [ ? sensitif] ». De même, les quelques mots ou segments illisibles sont indiqués entre crochets (« [illis.] »).