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Enfants du maquis en Algérie

Un héritage explosif

Abderrahmane Moussaoui

Résumé

Dans la politique de sortie de violence initiée en Algérie, après « la décennie noire » des années 1990, des enfants nés et ayant grandi dans les maquis posent un problème épineux. Redescendus en ville, avec leurs parents, à la faveur de la loi sur la réconciliation, le cas de ces enfants âgés de dix ans et plus, continue à poser de sérieuses questions. Malgré les avancées notables qu’a pu réaliser la politique de réconciliation, le cas de ces « enfants sans existence légale » ou « enfants d’identité inconnue » semble avoir été, pour le moins, négligé. Le dossier de ces enfants est une sorte de point aveugle ; et leur cas pose un certain nombre de problèmes, à commencer par leur identification et l’établissement de leurs filiations. Leur difficile réinsertion dans une société mal préparée à les intégrer pourrait constituer une sorte de bombe à retardement.

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Introduction

Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Children in the Middle East

Erika Friedl and Abderrahmane Moussaoui

Abstract

For several reasons there exist only relatively few ethnographic studies of children in the Middle East or in the diaspora. Accordingly, the articles in this issue of Anthropology of the Middle East represent thematically and theoretically highly divergent projects, all based on ethnographic topics and methodologies. Geographically they encompass different locations, and thematically they range from the history of childhood in Iran to matters of socio-cultural integration in Austria; from legal matters concerning youths in Algeria to socio-psychological problems of schoolchildren in Lebanon and to parent-child dynamics in Morocco. The short research, book and conference reports in this issue emphasize approaches and topics in critical anthropology as applied to the Middle East.

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Mêlées et démêlements familiaux autour d’une prise en charge pédopsychiatrique au Maroc

Julie Pluies

Résumé

Cet article, basé sur ma recherche doctorale dans un service pédopsychiatrique marocain, s’intéresse aux dispositifs cliniques élaborés pour accueillir et traiter les inquiétudes parentales et professionnelles envers la santé des enfants. Les réponses institutionnelles, politiques et cliniques sont discutées. Ce travail considère également les inquiétudes des enfants et du chercheur qui, souvent tues, sont omniprésentes et co-construisent les dispositifs de soins et la manière dont ceux-ci sont étudiés. Une ethnographie à l’hôpital et aux domiciles familiaux, offre une compréhension plus fournie de ces inquiétudes omises. En conclusion, un hiatus entre les différentes réponses apportées révèle l’absence d’égard pour l’attention, réciproque et symétrique, présente entre enfants et adultes. Je propose de veiller soigneusement aux inquiétudes enfantines pour porter l’aller-mieux enfantin et éloigner les inquiétudes de tous.

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Methodology Matters in Iran

Researching Social Movements in Authoritarian Contexts

Paola Rivetti

Abstract

How can scholars conduct fieldwork in an authoritarian environment, engaging ‘dangerous’ topics such as social movements in Iran? How can they overcome the limitations imposed by the authoritarian state and win the trust of activists? This article reflects on the knowledge that scholars produce under such difficult circumstances, arguing that the deployment of non-mainstream research practices and methods can benefit the scholarship, exposing under-studied and overlooked aspects of the topic investigated. More specifically, the article elaborates on how methodological choices inform the knowledge we produce and how they can therefore be used to overcome structural limitations generating innovative and fairer scholarship.

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Reports

Publications, Films and Conferences

Roxanne Varzi, Fadi A. Bardawil, Soheila Shahshahani, and Konstantina Isidoros

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Seized in Beirut

The Plundered Archives of the Palestinian Cinema Institution and Cultural Arts Section

Rona Sela

Abstract

One of the biggest acts of plunder by Israel was of a vast Palestinian film archive looted by Israeli military forces in Beirut in 1982. The films are managed under the repressive colonial control of the Israel Defense Forces Archive, which thus conceals many of them and information regarding their origin. This article documents my efforts to disclose the films and locate their institutions in Beirut, to chart their history, name their film-makers and open a discussion about returning them. It also provides a deeper understanding of colonial mechanisms of looting and truth production. I discuss the Third Palestine Cinema Movement and the various institutions that were part of the Palestinian revolution in the 1970s, with a focus on the Cultural Arts Section managed by Ismail Shammout.

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Whose Austria?

Muslim Youth Challenge Nativist and Closed Notions of Austrian Identity

Farid Hafez

Abstract

The Austrian Muslim Youth was founded in 1996 by young Muslims of different ethnic backgrounds and has become the largest multi-ethnic, co-educational, German-speaking youth organization in Austria today. Since its inception, it has presented the concept of an ‘Austrian Muslim identity’ as a key philosophy. In this article, I ask how the idea of this identity was negotiated. I suggest that this concept is not reinforcing nativist notions. Rather, the formation of an Austrian Muslim identity can be seen as an attempt to create safe spaces to empower young Muslims to live their religion while fully participating in Austrian society. Hence, this concept speaks to two audiences simultaneously, challenging nativist notions and offering young Muslims ways to see themselves as possessing multiple and hybrid identities.

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Appalling Tehran

Translation of the French Serial Story and Its Effect on the Persian Serial Story

Manizheh Abdollahi and Ehya Amalsaleh

Abstract

This article examines French-Iranian literary interactions in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, which arguably had ongoing effects in Iran on attitudes towards links between morality and social and economic inequality. Some of the earliest fictional stories published in Persian-language newspapers, in the 1850s, were French. This trend continued, through Iran’s Constitutional Revolution (1906), into the early decades of the twentieth century. During this period, Morteza Moshfeq-e Kazemi began writing the first Persian serial story and novel, Tehran-e Makhuf (Appalling Tehran). The present study investigates the effects of the translation of French serial stories on Persian ones, with a specific focus on the impact of the novel Les Mystères de Paris (1842–1843), by Eugène Sue, on the Persian novel Tehran-e Makhuf (1924).

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Calm Vessels

Cultural Expectations of Pregnant Women in Qatar

Susie Kilshaw, Daniel Miller, Halima Al Tamimi, Faten El-Taher, Mona Mohsen, Nadia Omar, Stella Major, and Kristina Sole

Abstract

This article explores emerging themes from the first stage of ethnographic research investigating pregnancy and loss in Qatar. Issues around the development of foetal personhood, the medical management of the pregnant body and the social role of the pregnant woman are explored. Findings suggest that Qatari women are expected to be calm vessels for their growing baby and should avoid certain foods and behaviours. These ideas of risk avoidance are linked to indigenous knowledge around a mother’s influence on a child’s health and traits. Motherhood holds a particularly important place in Qatari culture and in Islam, and women are ultimately responsible for protecting and promoting fertility and for producing healthy children.

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Death of a Statesman – Birth of a Martyr

Martyrdom and Memorials in Post–Civil War Lebanon

Are John Knudsen

Abstract

This article furthers the study of post–civil war memorialisation in Lebanon by analysing the trajectory of the late Prime Minister Rafik Hariri from statesman to martyr. This transformative process offers a window into the symbolism of Lebanese statehood, and demonstrates how the politicisation of confessional martyrs is used to decry injustice and stake out claims to the state. There is no tradition for prosecuting and punishing political murders in Lebanon, causing victims to be pronounced martyrs. Impunity is therefore the major reason why martyrs and memorialising are so widespread. To this end, the article offers a semiotic reading of Hariri’s posthumous transformation from political patron to patron saint, and is a contribution towards the importance of martyr symbolism for understanding the purported weakness of Lebanese statehood.