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Érotisme, désir et sadisme chez Sartre

Jean-Pierre Boulé

Résumé

Cet article se concentre sur l’érotisme et sur les relations sexuelles dans les écrits et la biographie de Sartre, et en particulier sur la notion de sadisme, explorant l’hypothèse que la biographie de Sartre sur Charles Baudelaire ainsi que Faut-il brûler Sade? de Simone de Beauvoir nous aident à explorer indirectement érotisme, désir et sadisme chez Sartre. Le texte est appuyé par une variété de sources secondaires, en particulier par des articles de Christina Howells et de Serge Doubrovsky. L’accent est mis sur la matérialité physique de l’acte sexuel et de l’érotisme mais sans jamais négliger les structures psychologiques et existentielles du sadisme et du masochisme.

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Judith Butler and the Sartrean Imaginary

Kathleen Lennon

Abstract

Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble has been one of the most influential theoretical works of the past twenty-five years. Both within and without philosophy, it is a touchstone for discussions of subjectivity and identity of all kinds. In her writings, and in conversation, Butler has made clear her indebtedness to the phenomenological and existential tradition, while revising it within a poststructuralist framework. In this article, I explore just one strand of that indebtedness by comparing the performative account of gender identity, which she offers in Gender Trouble, with the imaginary personages which form the basis of Sartre’s account of individual and social identities. I suggest that some of the problems encountered by performative accounts are a consequence of this inheritance.

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A Response to ‘Counter-violence and Terrorism’

Deborah Evans

Abstract

In this response to ‘Counter-Violence and Terrorism’, I argue, with Maria Russo, that fundamentalist Islamic terrorism transcends the boundaries of legitimate counter-violence on the Sartrean model, since this violence primarily oppresses Muslim communities. The ideological imperative of the jihadists’ way of being-in-the-world, based on a literalist Salafist/Wahhabist interpretation of sacred texts eschewed by a majority of Muslims, is the radical negation of otherness in all its forms: political, religious, cultural, civilisational and ideological. This jihadist worldview is nevertheless supported by millions of Muslims worldwide who seek to impose, by force if necessary, the global hegemony of sharia (Islamic) law as a divinely mandated system of government. By asserting the divine right to rule, the jihadists appear to give a (false) religious legitimacy to their fascist, totalitarian agenda.

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Sartre’s Literary Phenomenology

Andrew Inkpin

Abstract

This article focuses on the relation between philosophy and literature in early Sartre, showing how his literary writing can be seen as philosophically significant by interpreting Sartre as practising a variant of phenomenological method. I first clarify Sartre’s approach to phenomenological method by comparing and contrasting it with Husserl’s. Despite agreeing that philosophy is a reflective descriptive study of essences, Sartre sees no use for phenomenological reduction and free variation. I then consider the philosophical function of Sartre’s literary works, arguing that, although these cannot reliably convey philosophical theories, their significance lies in describing concrete situations that ground reflective theoretical concepts. However, this grounding function can be understood only if Sartre is seen as realising Husserl’s phenomenological method – including phenomenological reduction and free variation – more fully than he acknowledges. Finally, I address two challenges to my view and briefly assess the value of literary phenomenology as a philosophical method.

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Book Reviews

Matthew C. Eshleman, Eric Hamm, Curtis Sommerlatte, Adrian van den Hoven, Michael Lejman, and Diane Perpich

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Editors’ Introduction

Edited by David Detmer and John Ireland

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Organized Freedom and Progressive Reflection

Cameron Bassiri

Abstract

The present article provides an account of the chapter of volume one of the Critique of Dialectical Reason entitled “The Organization.” It is guided by the following questions: In what ways is the organization an advancement over the group in fusion and the statutory group? How does the organization contribute to the progressive dimension of Sartre’s progressive-regressive method? What is the status of the future within organized groups? It develops Sartre’s theory of power, rights, and duties, and shows that these concepts exist independently of the Polis. This makes possible a contrast with Plato and allows us to develop the implicit Sartrean concepts of moderation and justice in this chapter. I further show the internal structures and functioning of the organized group, Sartre’s concept of personal identity in such action, and the manner in which the future becomes concrete in such articulated action orientated toward an ultimate, collective aim.

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Sartre face à la liberté du chien

Baya Messaoudi

Résumé

Beaucoup de philosophes et d’écrivains décrivent aujourd’hui la complexité de la relation homme/animal. Elle repose sur « l’imposture » et « l’hallucination » selon certains, et sur l’échange et le partage selon d’autres. Pour Sartre, le problème se pose surtout en termes de liberté. Même si le chien vit auprès de l’homme, et trouve dans son milieu socio-culturel ses aliments et son abri, il ne s’y intègre qu’à moitié. Le chien ne se fond pas complètement dans le monde humain, sa situation particulière l’oblige aussi à s’en tenir à l’écart. Cet article veut montrer un Sartre qui révèle les « pièges de la domestication ». L’animal possédé est privé de sa liberté. Le maître veut rendre sa vie meilleure, en s’appuyant sur tout ce que le chien peut lui procurer comme joie, et qui le protège de son « obscène » et « fade » existence.

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Sartre, Lacan, and the Ethics of Psychoanalysis

A Defense of Lacanian Responsibility

Blake Scott

Abstract

In this article, I reconsider the philosophical significance of Jacques Lacan’s reading of Freud in light of Jean-Paul Sartre’s early critique of Freudian psychoanalysis. Since direct comparisons between the work of Sartre and Lacan are sparse in the English literature, Betty Cannon’s comprehensive treatment proves to be an invaluable resource in opening up this line of inquiry. I claim that one reason for the limited attention given to comparisons of their work is the continued strength of the polemics between humanism and structuralism. Lacan’s structuralism is regularly indicted by humanists for failing to provide a conception of subjective responsibility in the way that Sartre’s humanism does. Taking Cannon’s ­critique of Lacanian psychoanalysis on this issue as a point of departure, I argue that a conception of subjective responsibility can be found throughout Lacan’s work, serving as a point of common ground upon which further inquiry—particularly of Sartre’s later work—might begin.

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Sartre on Mental Imagery

Noel N. Sauer

Abstract

Sartre’s theory of mental imagery is often criticized for succumbing to the very “illusion of immanence” that he decries in both The Imagination and The Imaginary. I challenge Edward S. Casey’s defense of this criticism in light of Cam Clayton’s recent effort to do the same. Clayton tries to meet Casey’s arguments by focusing on what he, Clayton, believes to be Sartre’s development of the role and ontological status of the “psychical analogon” in his theory of mental imagery. I argue against Clayton’s account of the psychical analogon, showing how both he and Casey miss what for Sartre is its essential role and positive status as bodily movement. Thus Sartre adequately provides for the materiality, or positivity, of the psychical analogon, and a closer look at Sartre’s arguments about bodily movement and mental imagery—not Clayton’s interpretation—meets Casey’s objections and dispels Sartre’s theory of the alleged illusion.