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## Book Review

McKee Hurwitz, Heather. 2020. Are We the 99%? The Occupy Movement, Feminism and Intersectionality. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 208 pp, index. EAN: 978-1-4399-2021-3 (hardback), $99.50; EAN: 978-1-4399-2022-0 (paperback),$25.95.

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## Book Review

Dave Lochtie, Emily McIntosh, Andrew Stork and Ben W. Walker (2018), Effective Personal Tutoring in Higher Education St. Albans: Critical Publishing, 222 pp., ISBN 978-1-910391-98-3

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## Bringing (inter)national history into ‘Introduction to International Relations’

Many introductory courses in International Relations (IR) dedicate some portion of the class to international history. Such class segments often focus on great-power politics of the twentieth century and related academic debates. In this essay, I argue that these international history segments can better engage students by broadening the histories instructors present and by drawing on especially salient histories such as those of the country in which the course is being taught. To elaborate on how one might do this, I discuss how US-based courses could productively examine the country’s rise to great-power status. I outline three reasons to bring this topic into US-based introductory IR courses, and I draw on personal experience to provide a detailed description of the ways one can do so.

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## The Centrality of Difference in Coalition-Building across Divides

### Palestinian, Israeli, and International Organizations in the Occupied West Bank

Collective identities, as literature suggests, are constructed via an emphasis on sameness within a group and in the downplaying of internal difference. This study, however, found that collective agency, and resultingly, collective identity, was fueled just as much by a careful negotiation of difference as it was a group’s core similarities. Based on interviews with Palestinian, Israeli, and international activists involved in two Palestinian-led coalitions in Israel/Palestine, the study shows how uneven privileges and other differences, could be leveraged for the benefit of the coalitions, particularly through assessing what each ethnonational group brought to the collective. When members enacted their closely negotiated and distinct roles, the coalition’s sense of “we” was further solidified. Indeed, as this article illustrates, difference as well as unequal privileges, can be perceived as a defining feature of a strategically constructed collective identity and the reason for a partnership, not simply a problem to be managed.

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## Abstract

Food waste is a major challenge in affluent societies around the globe. Based on theories of protest and a mixed methods design combining qualitative, experimental, and survey research, we study the motives for, frequency of, and public support for dumpster diving in Germany. We find that dumpster diving as an unconventional daily protest action is related to more general protest against capitalist societies. It is motivated by both altruistic and egoistic concerns. The perceived legitimacy of violence and self-identity explain the frequency of dumpster diving. A factorial survey experiment with activists and the general public reveals strong similarities between the views of activists and those of other citizens in strong support of dumpster diving. This study demonstrates the usefulness of combining different empirical methods to study food activism.

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## Editorial

This issue is—in many ways—united by a common theme: revisiting the past and rethinking the problems it poses. Beginning with a renewed test of the biographical availability hypothesis, moving through a reassessment of the dynamics of collective identity formation, and stopping at a re-evaluation of the legacies of the 2011 protest wave, this issue begs that we reconsider that which we thought we already knew and open our minds to novel nuance and differential dynamics. It is thus fitting that it closes with a reflection on the life’s work of William Gamson, whose work prompted a great many scholars of social movements and contentious politics to reassess and re-evaluate much that we had assumed to know over the years.

Open access

## Editorial

This issue of Learning and Teaching: The International Journal of Higher Education in the Social Sciences includes authors from China, Canada, France and the United States. The first two articles analyse processes of developing international partnerships and networks promoting refugee access to higher education. The other three papers concern aspects of teaching and learning: online learning in accountancy; a flipped pedagogy in sociology; and the inclusion of national history in introductory international relations courses.

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## The effectiveness of online teaching and learning tools

### Students’ perceptions of usefulness in an upper-level accounting course

This study investigates how students in a distance-learning upperlevel accounting course perceive the effectiveness of different online teaching and learning (OTL) tools that are commonly used in business courses taught online. This topic is of critical importance, especially as the COVID-19 pandemic has pushed more courses to be OTL. A midsemester anonymous survey in an Accounting course at a public US university was conducted to measure students’ perceptions about different OTL course tools. Students were asked to provide their general assessment about how effective these tools were and how they believe these tools helped them learn. Analyses and discussions of the effectiveness of different tools and their link to earlier literature and how instructors can utilise the results of the OTL survey are presented.

Open access

## Flipping the classroom

### Students’ perceptions from an introductory sociology course

This article describes one approach to flipping an introductory sociology course. To encourage students to practice ‘doing’ sociology, we designed a flipped classroom that included a ‘pay to play’ model, small group work and an emphasis on active learning during class time. With this course design, we linked in-class active learning with outside prework so that students could engage with critical sociological concepts and apply those concepts in practice. With this flipped design, the instructors observed that students were deeply engaged with the course topics and expressed positive perceptions of their learning and growth over the semester. As the landscape of university instruction shifts, this course design model may assist instructors looking to foster active and engaged learning remotely.

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## Legacies of Contention

### Revisiting the 2011 Protest Wave

Ten years ago, a seemingly titanic wave of contention swept the globe. This article reflects on how the impact of a wave of contentious political action that is now a full decade old manifests today. These “legacies of contention”—the historically contingent impact of contentious episodes—can variably re-enforce, undermine, or depart substantially from the original focus of a given contentious episode, a sign of how difficult it can be to extrapolate from the causal impact of contentious politics in the near-run. Herein we discuss the fates of some of the 2011 contentious episodes, including Syria, Greece, Israel, England, and the United States.