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Open access

Adolfo Lucero Álvarez, Columba Rodríguez Alviso, Oscar Frausto Martínez, José Luis Aparicio López, Alejandro Díaz Garay, and Maximino Reyes Umaña

Abstract

The economic damage and loss of lives caused by hurricanes have motivated efforts to expand scientific research related to resilience to these natural phenomena. However, published writings are dispersed and fragmented in different fields of study. This research is aimed to identify factors that promote resilience in hurricane-impacted areas by reviewing specialized literature. The study is qualitative, based on content analysis. Twenty-seven articles published between 2006 and 2019 were reviewed. The results show that resilience has a multidisciplinary character, although there is a coincidence in defining it as a system's ability to absorb, resist, and recover from disasters; the system is conceived as the representation of a totality made up of related elements (ecological, social, and economic, among others). A focus on physical infrastructure predominates, but a social approach begins to be distinguished. The factors that promote resilience are grouped into four categories: ecological, social, infrastructure, and mental health.

Resumen

La investigación científica sobre resiliencia ha incrementado paralelamente a los daños económicos y casualidades humanas generadas por el paso de huracanes. El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar los factores que promueven la resiliencia en áreas impactadas por huracanes, mediante la revisión de literatura especializada. El estudio es cualitativo basado en análisis de contenido de publicaciones científicas en diferentes campos de estudio. En específico, se revisaron veintisiete artículos publicados entre 2006 y 2019. La resiliencia es multidisciplinar y hay una coincidencia al definirla: la capacidad de un sistema para absorber, resistir y recuperarse de los desastres. Predomina un enfoque de infraestructura física, pero comienza a distinguirse uno social. Los factores que promueven la resiliencia se agrupan en cuatro categorías: ecológica, social, infraestructura y salud mental.

Résumé

Les pertes en vies humaines et les dégâts économiques causés par les ouragans ont motivé la recherche scientifique sur la résilience, définie comme la capacité d'un système à absorber, à résister et à se remettre des catastrophes. Les écrits publiés sont dispersés et fragmentés dans différents domaines d'étude. L'objectif de cette recherche était d'identifier les facteurs favorisant la résilience dans des zones touchées par les ouragans en examinant la littérature spécialisée. L'étude est qualitative, basée sur une analyse de contenu. Vingt-sept articles publiés entre 2006 et 2009 ont été examinés. L'approche en termes d'infrastructure physique prédomine, mais une approche sociale commence à se distinguer. Les facteurs favorisant la résilience peuvent être regroupés en quatre catégories : écologique, sociale, infrastructurelle et celle de la santé mentale.

Open access

Zhiding Hu and Victor Konrad

Abstract

Formerly localized, restricted border interaction between China and Southeast Asia has shifted to extensive cross-border engagement along regulated borders with a hierarchy of crossings and expansive borderlands. This expanded security system reveals rescaled and repositioned border security infrastructure and practice into a point and corridor system with vanguard crossings at Hekou, Mohan and Ruili. Fundamental shifts are concurrent focus on primary crossings and spatially extensive borderlands that encompass diminished attention to lesser crossings, beyond the border implementation of security checkpoints, mobile security, and compromise, to enable effective management of expansive borderlands. These borderlands mediate space and enable spatial reapportionment of security to accommodate greatly enhanced cross-border flows of people, goods, and information, thus shaping extensive spaces of exclusion and integration and focused places of exception.

Resumen

La anteriormente restringida interacción fronteriza China– Sudeste Asiático, cambió a un extenso compromiso de fronteras reguladas con una jerarquía de cruces y zonas transfronterizas expansivas. Este sistema ampliado de seguridad, revela la infraestructura y prácticas transfronterizas reescaladas y reubicadas como puntos y sistemas de corredores con cruces de vanguardia en Hekou, Mohan y Ruili. Los cambios se enfocan en los cruces primarios y extensión de fronteras, disminuyendo la atención a los cruces menores —después de la implementación de puntos de control de seguridad—, la seguridad móvil y el compromiso a una gestión fronteriza eficaz. Estas zonas permiten la redistribución espacial de la seguridad acomodando los intensificados flujos transfronterizos de personas, bienes e información, conformando espacios de exclusión e integración, así como lugares de excepción focalizados.

Résumé

L'interaction frontalière entre la Chine et l'Asie du Sud-Est, autrefois localisée et limitée, s'est transformée en un engagement transfrontalier réglementé avec une hiérarchie de passages et des zones frontalières étendues. Ce système de sécurité élargi révèle une infrastructure et une pratique de sécurité frontalière redimensionnées et repositionnées dans un système de points et de corridors avec des passages d'avant-garde à Hekou, Mohan et Ruili. Les changements fondamentaux se concentrent sur les principaux points de passage, les zones frontalières étendues, la mise en œuvre de points de contrôle de sécurité, la sécurité mobile et le compromis, pour permettre une gestion efficace des zones frontalières étendues. Ces dernières permettent la médiation de l'espace et la réaffectation spatiale de la sécurité afin d'accueillir des flux transfrontaliers de personnes, de biens et d'informations considérablement accrus, façonnant ainsi de vastes espaces d'exclusion et d'intégration et des lieux d'exception ciblés.

Open access

Shockwaves

Atmospheres beyond the Conflict City/Ordinary City Divide

Sara Fregonese

Abstract

Urban conflict literature has attempted new comparisons between contested cities in conflict zones and cities with no armed conflict. This literature tends to use representational frameworks around defensive planning and normative government discourses. In this article, I propose to expand these frameworks and to engage with epistemologies of lived experience to produce new relational accounts linking “conflict cities” with “ordinary cities”. The article accounts for the lived, sensory and atmospheric in exploring the legacies of conflict on the everyday urban environments. It then reflects on the everyday and experiential effects of counterterrorism in ordinary cities. While this is designed to minimize threat, it also alters urban spatiality in a way reminiscent of urban conflict zones. It then explores the unequal impacts of counterterrorism across urban publics, and their experiential connections with practices of counterinsurgency. The article is structured around two ‘shockwaves’ entwining lived experiences across seemingly unrelatable urban settings.

Open access

The State of Emergency at Home

House Arrests, House Searches, and Intimacies in France

Flora Hergon

Abstract

This article focuses on the massive house searches and house arrests that occurred during the state of emergency in France between 2015 and 2017. It draws from critical studies on counterterrorism as well as sociology of the intimate to analyze the aftermath of these measures on the Muslim households that experienced these procedures without being sentenced afterward. It examines how house arrests and searches redefine the respondents’ relationships to their domestic space and local environment as these places become spaces of fear, surveillance, discipline, and self-control. The analysis reveals a set of embodied and discursive strategies to prove an innocence that implies a reappropriation of state categories around social integration and the promotion of an acceptable and non-suspect religiosity.

Open access

Telling Tales?

Subjective Ethnography and Situated Narratives in Longitudinal Research on Violence in Nicaragua

Dennis Rodgers

Abstract

The ethnographic representation of violence is a controversial issue, involving debates about (avoiding) sensationalism or (acknowledging) emotionality, for example. Less considered is how the subjective nature of ethnography and the fact that ethnographic narratives are always situated can have ramifications for both interpreting and representing violence, particularly in the context of longitudinal ethnographic research. Drawing on my investigations into Nicaraguan gang dynamics begun in 1996, this article explores the subjectivity of the longitudinal ethnographic experience of violence both in and out of “the field” through three specific examples. These highlight in different ways how ethnographic understanding is highly situational and time-bound, meaning that longitudinal research is particularly prone to episodes of discomfiting conceptual disjuncture. At the same time, it is precisely this that arguably imbues it with exceptional power and insight.

Open access

Times of Violence

The Shifting Temporalities of Long-Term Ethnographic Engagement with Burundi

Simon Turner

Abstract

Over the past two decades, I have done ethnographic fieldwork amongst Burundians in Burundi and in exile, exploring the different ways they deal with the violence that the country has witnessed over the decades. In this article I follow my tracks back and forth and in and out of the country, reflecting on the advantages and challenges of long-term engagement. At a conceptual level, I propose that while violence is indeed lodged in a social context, violent events create a momentary temporal rupture, thereby dislodging meaning from its local context of understanding. My methodological contribution is to explore how long-term engagements, revisits, and diachronic comparisons in ethnography may help us understand violence and violent events. I explore how violent events have affected the past, the present, and the future, causing those who experience it to reorient their understanding not only of their pasts but also of their anticipations for the future.

Open access

Sandy A. Medina-Valdivia, Carmen Maganda-Ramírez, R. Carlos Almazán-Núñez, América L. Rodríguez-Herrera, Columba Rodríguez-Alviso, and José Luis Rosas-Acevedo

Abstract

How do societies value and interact with ecosystem services (ES) to favor their long-term conservation? Under the premise that socio-cultural assessment of ES offers an expanded perspective for potential societal nature contributions, we present here the empirical results of a participative assessment of ES in the Laguna de Nuxco coastal wetland in 2019. The methodological design includes the combination of applied qualitative tools on site and quantitative methods for analysis of information. The results emphasize that the ES of the wetland support socio-economic needs and important socio-cultural community traits, such as cultural heritage and identity as fishing communities. We identify emerging socio-ecological conflicts that promote the decrease of ES. We suggest conceptual and methodological adaptations for the participative assessment of ES on the local scale.

Resumen

¿Cómo las sociedades valoran e interactúan con los servicios ecosistémicos (SE) que les rodean para favorecer su conservación a largo plazo? Bajo la premisa que la valoración sociocultural de SE ofrece una perspectiva ampliada para potenciales contribuciones sociedad-naturaleza, presentamos aquí los resultados empíricos de una valoración participativa de SE del humedal costero Laguna de Nuxco en 2019. El diseño metodológico incluyó la combinación de herramientas cualitativas aplicadas en sitio y cuantitativas para el análisis de información. Los resultados enfatizan que los SE del humedal sustentan necesidades socioeconómicas e importantes aspectos socioculturales como patrimonio cultural e identidad como comunidades pesqueras. Identificamos conflictos socioecológicos emergentes que promueven la disminución de SE. Sugerimos adecuaciones conceptuales y metodológicas para la valoración participativa de SE en la escala local.

Résumé

Comment les sociétés valorisent-elles et interagissent-elles avec les services écosystémiques (SE) pour favoriser leur conservation à long terme? Le principe de l'évaluation socioculturelle des SE offre une perspective élargie des contributions potentielles société-nature, et est utilisé pour présenter les résultats empiriques d'une évaluation participative des SE réalisée en 2019 dans la zone humide côtière de Laguna de Nuxco, au Mexique. La méthodologie comprenait la combinaison d'outils qualitatifs sur site et d'outils quantitatifs pour l'analyse de l'information. Les résultats soulignent que les SE de la zone humide répondent aux besoins socio-économiques et à des aspects socioculturels tels que le patrimoine culturel et l'identité en tant que communautés de pêcheurs. Nous identifions les conflits socio-écologiques émergents qui favorisent la diminution des SE. Nous suggérons des adaptations conceptuelles et méthodologiques pour l'évaluation participative des SE à l'échelle locale.

Open access

“What about Last Time?”

Exploring Potentiality in Danish Young Women's Violent Conflicts

Ann-Karina Henriksen

Abstract

The article explores how violence as actuality and potentiality shapes the lives of Danish at-risk girls and young women. The article draws on seven months of ethnographic fieldwork in Copenhagen and includes 25 girls and young women aged 13 to 23 who have all experienced using physical violence. Centering on a single young woman's narrative, violence is analyzed as a meaningful social practice intimately linked to navigating violent social terrains and managing precarious everyday lives characterized by instability and marginalization. Drawing on the concept of potentiality, it is argued that violent interactions are shaped by both the fear of oncoming danger and the desire for powerful social positions. This perspective opens a micro-longitudinal perspective, which explores situational dynamics of violence through time, hereby contributing to micro-sociological studies of violence.

Open access

World Family Portrait

Expresiones paisajísticas de la frontera Guatemala-México en la zona del Soconusco; Un alfabeto, dos universos

Mauricio Pablo Cervantes Salas, Harlan Harlan, and Carmen Maganda

In this issue

Regions & Cohesion is proud to present a selection of four photographs submitted by Mauricio Salas Cervantes and taken by Felipe Morales Leal that describe a research visit within a multidisciplinary and multinational project in the transboundary Guatemala–Mexico region with a perspective of a landscape analysis. These pictures taken in the Suchiate river in Soconusco region show the complexity and plurality of one of the most transited crossing points between Mexico and Guatemala. We also publish two photographs by our editors Carmen Maganda and Harlan Koff that illustrate their research visit to the Costa Chica Guerrero, Mexico. These photos juxtapose the co-existence of two worlds in this region: one local and one global.

Open access

Fernando Antonio Ignacio González, Maria Emma Santos, and Silvia London

Abstract

This article analyses the recent evolution of territorial disparities in Argentina, measured by a Multidimensional Poverty Index, by carrying out a formal convergence analysis between agglomerates. In particular, the existence of absolute β-convergence and σ-convergence is tested. The information comes from the microdata of the Permanent Household Survey. The results suggest that, although an end-to-end analysis of the period shows a decrease in poverty accompanied by a reduction in territorial disparities between the main urban agglomerates in Argentina, when disaggregating by subperiods, it is evident that in periods of economic growth (essentially from 2003 to 2009), territorial disparities increased. Conversely, in periods of stagnation, these disparities decrease.

Resumen

Este articulo analiza la evolución reciente de las disparidades territoriales en Argentina, medida por un Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional, mediante un análisis formal de convergencia entre aglomerados. En particular, se testea la existencia de convergencia-β absoluta y convergencia-σ. La información proviene de los microdatos de la Encuesta Permanente de Hogares. Los resultados sugieren que, si bien en un análisis punta-a-punta del período se observa una reducción de la pobreza acompañada de una reducción de las disparidades territoriales entre los principales aglomerados urbanos de Argentina, al desagregar por subperíodos, se evidencia que en los períodos de crecimiento económico (esencialmente del 2003 al 2009) se incrementaron las disparidades territoriales. En tanto que en los periodos de estancamiento, estas disparidades se redujeron.

Résumé

Ce travail analyse l'évolution récente des disparités territoriales en Argentine, mesurée à partir d'un Indice multidimensionnel de la pauvreté, sur la base d'une étude de la convergence entre les agglomérations urbaines. Il teste en particulier l'existence de la beta convergence absolue et de la sigma convergence. Les informations proviennent de microdonnées de l'Enquête permanente des ménages. Bien qu'une analyse ponctuelle de la période montre une réduction générale de la pauvreté accompagnée d'une réduction des disparités territoriales entre les principales agglomérations urbaines d'Argentine, la désagrégation par sous-périodes permet d'observer que pendant les périodes de croissance économique (essentiellement de 2003 à 2009), les disparités territoriales se sont accrues alors qu'en période de stagnation elles se sont réduites.