Despite the professed break from apartheid, a dual logic continues to reproduce the segregated city structure in Windhoek, Namibia’s capital. On the one hand, the formal regulation of access to urban land, housing, and basic services privileges property ownership and ratepaying. On the other hand, for the informal residents, access is provisional and incremental, and depends on cultivating relations with peers and authorities. However, the latter logic of access also contributes to a moral imagination that challenges entitlement based on market participation. The article argues that everyday urban governance and urban citizenship in Windhoek arise out of the coexistence, clashes, and collusions between these logics in policies and planning, the residents’ claims of entitlement, and the communication between residents and authorities. The article is based on fieldwork conducted in 2016 and 2019.
The reproduction and transformation of the segregated city in Windhoek
Lesley Wood, Ronald Barnett, and Penny Welch
Budd L. Hall and Rajesh Tandon (2021), Socially Responsible Higher Education: International Perspectives on Knowledge Democracy. Rotterdam, NL: Brill, 303pp., ISBN: 978-90-04-45907-6
Anke Schwittay (2021), Creative Universities: Reimagining Education for Global Challenges and Alternative Futures. Bristol: Bristol University Press, 200pp., ISBN: 978-1529213652
Catherine Bovill (2020) Co-creating Learning and Teaching: Towards Relational Pedagogy in Higher Education. St. Albans: Critical Publishing, 96pp., ISBN: 9781913063818
The funeral reforms in China condemn widespread burial practices considered “backward” and “uncivilized” while contradicting core grassroots values. Examining collective tomb land expropriation in a former rural township of Fuzhou hosting important military infrastructures, this article highlights issues of accessibility to ancestral land in the context of rapid urbanization and the resulting transition from village commons to state provisioned public goods. How do the original inhabitants of new urban communities make claims on their ancestors’ tomb land? What tactics are deployed to comply with state policies as well as to safeguard a certain sense of collective identity? This article shows how former villagers’ publicizing strategies of militarizing their ancestors allow for some concessions to be made, despite little room for negotiations left by sweeping urbanization.
Struggles for social goods
Public goods have been neglected, if not outright rejected, by the anti-capitalist literature, which favors “commons.” This article argues that equal attention should be given to commons and to public goods—both are essential to social reproduction. Their difference is not one of nature, but of status; it results from the way they are managed and distributed. I offer some conceptual clarifications in the literature on commons, public goods, club goods and private goods, and argue for an approach that looks at the status of goods. This opens up room for examining two ways struggles for social goods are and may be waged: commoning and publicizing. While commoning practices require organization at the community level, publicizing practices make claims on the state as a provider of public goods.
l’art d’accommoder l’histoire et la géographie
Rachid Sidi Boumedine
Pour les touristes, la cuisine de l’Algérie n’est pas codifiée comme celle des autres pays voisins. Conscient de la variation climatique et la diversité des productions agro-pastorales, ainsi que de l’histoire du contact avec les anciennes civilisations de Rome à Ottomane, Abbasside, Perse et Andalus l’auteur montre l’importance et la richesse de la nourriture. Dans les milieux urbains, les aliments des migrants rappellent leurs origines. Des plats comme «dolma» et «kefta», des sauces de tomate ou l’utilisation du cumin en sont témoins et l’auteur souligne bien les relations historiques et toutes les adaptations locales. Un autre sujet abordé par l’auteur c’est l’ordre et la manière de la présentation des repas, différents selon les situations : une fête, une occasion particulière ou bien un repas quotidien et de tous les jours. Autrement dit, les repas sont considérés comme un cadeau impliquant un rituel ou une continuation des relations. La nourriture identifie les classes sociales et explique les relations entre les gens. Elle n’est pas donc la simple compilation d’ingrédients, mais une donne culturelle ayant une identité à la fois sociale, économique et historique explorée historiquement par l’auteur.
Labor migration, black markets, and the state in Chile
Formal work is essential to gain legal residence in Chile and the reason why Latin American and Caribbean migrants purchase fake contracts on the black market. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with migrant Haitian women applying for work visas in Santiago, this article explores the effects of desired formality and its promises of a good life on contemporary statehood in Chile. The analysis shows how Haitian women’s efforts to become formal workers transform their experiences as racialized and gendered migrants in Chile, and impact how state institutions manage and control migration. Desired formality reveals the paradoxical character of state policies that help create a racialized and precarious labor force within its legal frameworks and explain why migrants attach themselves to fragile good-life projects in new countries.
Struggling for public electricity in postapartheid Johannesburg
This article explores practices of community-based energy justice activists in Johannesburg. Against the background of municipal corporatization of electricity delivery in the wake of the postapartheid state’s neoliberal policy turn, residents of the urban periphery organize to ward off cost-recovery measures and illegally (re)connect to the grid. Informed by theories of critical urban studies on the South, this article situates activists’ practices historically and discusses the limits of their strategic claims with a view to their inextricable relation to the state.
Class, precarity, and the distribution of creative labor
This article examines the endurance of traditional class labels among precarious workers in post-recession Dublin. It argues that tensions remain between creatives and non-creatives due to: (1) divergent class concepts, (2) a lack of social engagement, and (3) unequal access to economic, social, and cultural capital, which creatives mobilize to protect some highly vocational artistic labor. It is thus not a shared experience of the same kind of precarious exploitation that unites the precariat but a trap held in common, whereby self-actualization through labor is construed as a route to freedom. Drawing on Karl Marx’s theory of emancipation, I suggest that attempts to redress precarization should focus on undermining this encroachment of work into life, which I argue results in exploitation and alienation for all precarious workers.
Erika Friedl Melds Folklore and Ethnography to Develop a New Anthropological Genre
Mary Elaine Hegland
Erika Friedl, Folk Tales from a Persian Tribe: Forty-Five Tales from Sisakht in Luri and English, Collected, Transcribed, Translated and Commented on by Erika Friedl (Dortmund, Germany:Verlag für Orientkunde, 2007); Folktales and Storytellers of Iran: Culture, Ethos, and Identity (London: I.B. Tauris, 2014); Warm Hearts and Sharp Tongues: Life in 555 Proverbs from the Zagros Mountains of Iran (Vienna: New Academic Press, 2015); and Folksongs from the Mountains of Iran: Culture, Poetics and Everyday Philosophies (London: I.B. Tauris, 2018).
Religious Orders, Monasteries and Confessional Dynamics in Lebanon
Rodrigo Ayupe Bueno da Cruz
This article analyses the role of the Salvatorian and Chouerite monastic orders and their principal convents in producing collective memories among the Greek Catholic community in Lebanon. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Lebanon over the course of several months between December 2014 and 2020, I argue that the historical importance of both orders in the Patriarchate’s foundation and the popularity of some of their local symbols, priests and museums have transformed them into privileged places to transmit community memories. Last, these collective memories have contributed not only to constructing a Greek Catholic identity but also to maintaining this community within the Lebanese political-religious field.