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Documentary Appendix

Valentina Sartori

This documentary appendix provides the reader with the demographic,

economic, political, and social background to the main events of 2011

discussed in this volume. The appendix is divided into two sections.

The first comprises tables A1 to A14, which present socio-demographic

and economic data, while the second comprises tables B1 to B14,

which supply data on elections held in 2011.

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The End of an Era: The Crumbling of the Italian Party System

Luigi Ceccarini, Ilvo Diamanti, and Marc Lazar

At around 9:00 pm on 12 November 2011, Silvio Berlusconi officially

informed the president of the Republic, Giorgio Napolitano, of his

resignation. The following day, the president invited Mario Monti to

form a new government. This marked the end of a long crisis involving

Berlusconi, not only as the head of the government, but also as

the leader of the center-right parliamentary majority, which had been

built on the alliance between the Popolo della Libertà (PdL, People of

Freedom) and the Lega Nord (LN, Northern League).

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Federal Reform: The End of the Beginning or the Beginning of the End?

Emanuele Massetti

On 28 July 2011, Roberto Calderoli, minister of the simplification of

laws and regulations and a leading figure of the Lega Nord (LN, Northern

League), announced that “the implementation of the federalist

reform can be considered, for its most relevant part, accomplished”

and that “federalism becomes a completed and transparent system, as

it had never been: a true federalism of which all citizens will feel the

effects.”1 On 11 August, Roberto Formigoni, the regional president of

Lombardy, a leading figure of the Popolo della Libertà (PdL, People of

Liberty) and a strong advocate of fiscal federalism, declared: “Fiscal

federalism has lost all its substance; it does not exist anymore.”

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The Formation of the Monti Government and the Role of the President of the Republic

Carlo Fusaro

On Saturday 12 November 2011, after the approval of the budget and

the stability law, the prime minister, Silvio Berlusconi, who had led

the government for the longest period in the history of the Italian

Republic, formally resigned. Twenty-four hours later, the president of

the Republic, Giorgio Napolitano, invited Mario Monti, whom he had

made a Life Senator just four days earlier, to form the next government.

An academic and president of the Bocconi University in Milan,

Monti had been the European commissioner chosen by the Berlusconi

government in 1994 and reappointed by the Massimo D’Alema center-left

government in 1999. On 16 November, having accepted the president’s

nomination, Monti presented a list of ministers, none of whom

were members of Parliament, and they were all sworn in on that very

day. Thus, one of the shortest government crises ever was resolved in

less than three days.

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The Italian Candidate: The Appointment of Mario Draghi to the Presidency of the ECB

Kenneth Dyson and Lucia Quaglia

After prolonged negotiations, on 24 June 2011, the governor of the

Bank of Italy, Mario Draghi, was appointed president of the European

Central Bank (ECB) as successor to Jean-Claude Trichet. His mandate

runs from 1 November 2011 to 31 October 2019. Draghi’s appointment

was consistent with a long-standing practice of Italian politicians and

officials seeking to engage with the process of European integration

by ensuring that they were “sitting at the European top table.” In the

context of the euro area, sitting at the top table for Italy was initially

about gaining euro entry as a founding member state in 1999 and,

subsequently, about having strong Italian representation in the governing

structures of the euro area, particularly the ECB. Once the

sovereign debt crisis became contagious in 2010–2011, it meant ensuring

that financial markets drew a clear distinction between Italy and

periphery member states such as Greece and Portugal that suffered

from sovereign debt distress.

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Italy and the International Intervention In Libya

Osvaldo Croci and Marco Valigi

The uprising against Colonel Muammar Gaddafi was part of the “Arab

Spring,” a wave of demonstrations that began at the end of 2010 and

led, in a short space of time, to the fall of regimes in Tunisia and

Egypt; uprisings in Syria, Yemen, and Bahrain; and street protests in a

number of other Arab countries. Following the collapse of the ruling

administrations in neighboring Tunisia and Egypt on 14 January and 11

February, respectively, street protests against Gaddafi began in Libya.

The violent reaction of the Libyan regime led to uprisings throughout

the country. On 27 February, anti-Gaddafi forces established a provisional

government, known as the National Transitional Council (NTC),

in Benghazi. The ensuing civil war resulted in the intervention of a

NATO-led coalition to enforce United Nations (UN) Security Council

Resolution 1973, which provided for the establishment of a no-fly zone

to protect civilians. From their stronghold in eastern Libya, the anti-

Gaddafi forces, aided by NATO air cover and air strikes, slowly took

control of the rest of the country. They captured Tripoli on 28 August

and then moved against the remaining pro-Gaddafi forces in northeastern

Libya. Gaddafi’s last stand in his hometown of Sirte ended on 20

October, when he was captured and killed.

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Italy's 150th Anniversary: Commemorating the Past in a Divided Country

John Foot and Samantha Owen

On 17 March 2011, Italy celebrated its 150th anniversary. On that day

in 1861, Victor Emmanuel II had become the first king of Italy. This

date, however, marked only a formal moment of annexation. It was not

a day of revolution but instead a bureaucratic (albeit highly symbolic)

political unification. The date 17 March was designated as a national

holiday on a one-off basis in 2011, and on that day flags were raised

across Italy to celebrate the nation’s 150th birthday. The central event

took place at a parliamentary session where the two houses heard a

speech delivered by President Giorgio Napolitano. Official celebrations

were also planned for many key places linked to the history

of the unification process and Italy in general.

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The June Referendums: A Partial Victory

Chiara Carrozza

The four referendums that took place on 12 and 13 June 2011 broke

the long cycle of unsuccessful abrogative referendums in Italy that,

since June 1997, had failed to reach the necessary quorum. The

reversal of this trend in 2011 was particularly noteworthy: not only

was the quorum reached, but voter turnout returned to figures comparable

to those prior to 1997. In addition, the questions raised in

the referendums were, albeit for a short time, at the center of public

debate. What are the factors that gave rise to this high level of

participation? And how can we interpret the results? By tracing the

events surrounding the referendums, this chapter will put forward

some interpretations.

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The 2011 Local Elections: Berlusconi Lost, but Who Won?

Guido Legnante

With the double defeat of the center-right in Milan and Naples,

the local elections on 15–16 and 29–30 May 2011 marked a turning

point in Italian politics. In Milan, the “moral capital” and center

of Silvio Berlusconi’s empire, the outgoing mayor, Letizia Moratti,

was defeated by the center-left candidate Giuliano Pisapia in an outcome

that recalled, with the roles reversed, the historic defeat of the

center-left in Bologna in 1999. In Naples, the city that symbolizes the

difficulties faced by the center-left in government, the center-right

candidate Giovanni Lettieri was incapable of offering an alternative

and lost to the outsider, Luigi de Magistris, an ex-magistrate and a

member of Italia dei Valori (IdV, Italy of Values) who, in the first

round, had beaten Mario Morcone, the candidate representing the

Partito Democratico (PD, Democratic Party) and Sinistra Ecologia e

Libertà (SEL, Left Ecology and Freedom).

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The Monti Government and the Downgrade of Italian Parties

Anna Bosco and Duncan McDonnell

The year 2011 seems likely to be remembered not only as the year

when Silvio Berlusconi’s government fell after three years in office, but

as the year when the Italian Second Republic entered its final phase.

Having been dominated since 1994 by the pro-/anti-Berlusconi cleavage,

Italian politics and its party system at the end of 2011 appeared

to be moving, or at least stumbling, toward a new and uncertain configuration.

The obvious immediate reason for this was the resignation

of the government on 12 November in the face of a financial crisis that

was rendering the country’s debt unsustainable and its party political

leaders ever less internationally credible. Nonetheless, the simple

conclusion that the Berlusconi government was replaced by Mario

Monti’s technocratic executive due to pressure from the markets and

the European Union (EU) is not sufficient to understand either why

this event occurred or what its effects might be.