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Open access

Amy Batley

Abstract

An array of methods are used in European cities to respond to terrorism, with counterterrorism infrastructures in the built environment receiving particular academic interest. Yet the significance of imaginations of city spaces are often overlooked in studies of counterterrorism planning. Counterterrorism workshops influence imaginations of urban spaces by encouraging participants to adopt an anticipatory security gaze. This article explores the spatial approach of workshops, which require participants to interpret cities as a series of spaces and locations that could be terror targets. This article proposes that encouraging imaginations of danger in urban spaces can evoke fear, itself an aim of terrorism, or even neurosis, which becomes spatially attached to urban spaces as a means of urban counterterrorism governance.

Open access

“I Showed You What I Thought Was Appropriate”

Reflections on Longitudinal Ethnographic Research and the Performativity of Dutch Gang Life

Robert A. Roks

Abstract

This article highlights some aspects of doing longitudinal ethnography in criminology. By zooming in and reflecting on some of the key moments and methodological choices made over the course of more than 15 years of fieldwork among members of a Dutch gang, this article illustrates that relations with informants have the potential to strengthen over time, but that building rapport and trust with (active) offenders is not necessarily a linear process. In addition to voicing the emotional and evocative aspects of these methodological deliberations, this “true confession” is meant to spark some more debate on how longitudinal fieldwork in criminology impacts field relations by critically examining not only the performativity of informants, but also of researchers.

Open access

Introduction

Experiential Landscapes of Terror

Sunčana Laketa, Sara Fregonese, and Damien Masson

Abstract

This special section addresses how the spatiality of terrorism and security responses mobilize and impact the realm of experience. The articles presented here expose how terrorism is encountered as a felt experience by urban residents in Europe through an analysis that encompasses several realms including the body, the intimate, the domestic, and the urban public space. These works develop existing scholarship on the European urban geographies of terrorism, by looking beyond established approaches to normative range of actors and infrastructures that underlie terrorism and counter-terror security responses, and by exploring the fine-grained connections between felt experience, urban space, and global politics. Moreover, in focusing on the experiential landscapes of terror, we start exploring geographies where healing, trust, and societal reconnection can be imagined in the wake of terror.

Open access

Introduction

The Longitudinal Ethnography of Violence

Lidewyde H. Berckmoes, Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard, and Dennis Rodgers

Abstract

While many anthropologists have previously reflected on longitudinal ethnography—for example distinguishing between different categories of longitudinal research, including the ethnographic revisit, either by the same or another researcher, diachronic research projects, involving continuous and sustained engagement over time, or so-called large-scale or multigenerational projects, among others—there has been little reflection on the way particular topics of research might impact on the longitudinal research process. In particular, we argue here that the stakes of longitudinal ethnographic research come to the fore particularly starkly in relation to studies of violence. More specifically, longitudinality potentially both enhances certain risks inherent to carrying out research on violence, while also offering unique opportunities for better understanding the phenomenon more reflexively.

Open access

Listening to Terror Soundscapes

Sounds, Echoes, and Silences in Listening Experiences of Survivors of the Bataclan Terrorist Attack in Paris

Luis Velasco-Pufleau

Abstract

Listening experiences provide valuable insights in understanding the meaning of events and shaping the way we remember them afterwards. Listening builds relationships with places and subjectivities. What kinds of relationships and connections are built through listening during an event of extreme violence, such as a terrorist attack? This article examines the relationships between sound, space, and affect through an acoustemology of Bataclan survivors’ sensory experiences of both the terrorist attack and its aftermath. I draw on the testimonies of nine survivors of the Bataclan terrorist attack in Paris, which unfolded on the evening of 13 November 2015 during a rock concert, as well as interviews with three parents of survivors and victims. This article explores how the study of listening experiences and aural memories of survivors contributes to understanding mnemonic dynamics and processes of recovery related to sound following violent events.

Open access

Juan Alberto Gran Castro and Silvia Lizette Ramos de Robles

Abstract

The objective of this article is to analyze the perceptions of those who live in a context of marginalization and urban poverty as to their awareness of any risks to health and well-being associated with climate change. The methodological framework for this study was qualitative and ethnographic. The main sources of information were semi-structured interviews with residents of El Colli, located in Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico who are parents. We conclude that there are climate change-induced environmental regional particularities that result in unequal conditions of vulnerability and a greater occurrence of risk events for populations in marginalized and poor areas. Thus, we argue that the theoretical and methodological references that consider local knowledge are key to enabling adaptation measures aimed at social welfare.

Resumen

El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la percepción sobre riesgos a la salud y el bienestar asociados al cambio climático, a partir de las experiencias cotidianas de vivir en un contexto de marginación y pobreza urbana. La perspectiva metodológica fue de carácter cualitativo y de cohorte etnográfico, cuya principal fuente de información fueron entrevistas semiestructuradas a los padres y madres de familia, habitantes de El Colli, ubicado en Zapopan, Jalisco, México. Concluimos que las particularidades regionales a escala local enfrentan impactos específicos asociados al cambio climático según las condiciones desiguales de vulnerabilidad entre la población y la ocurrencia de eventos riesgosos. Así, sostenemos que los referentes teórico-metodológicos que consideren el conocimiento local son clave para propiciar medidas de adaptación encaminadas al bienestar social.

Résumé

L'objectif de cet article est d'analyser la perception des risques pour la santé et le bien-être liés au changement climatique à partir des expériences quotidiennes de vie dans un contexte de marginalisation et de pauvreté urbaine. La méthodologie adoptée s'appuie sur une cohorte qualitative et ethnographique, dont la principale source sont des entretiens semi-structurés avec des parents résidant à El Colli, situé à Zapopan, au Jalisco, Mexique. Nous concluons que le changement climatique a des répercussions spécifiques en fonction des particularités régionales à l'échelle locale, notamment des conditions inégales de vulnérabilité de la population et de la survenue d'événements à risque. Ainsi, nous soutenons que les références théoriques et méthodologiques qui prennent en compte les connaissances locales sont essentielles pour promouvoir des mesures d'adaptation visant le bien-être social.

Open access

Adolfo Lucero Álvarez, Columba Rodríguez Alviso, Oscar Frausto Martínez, José Luis Aparicio López, Alejandro Díaz Garay, and Maximino Reyes Umaña

Abstract

The economic damage and loss of lives caused by hurricanes have motivated efforts to expand scientific research related to resilience to these natural phenomena. However, published writings are dispersed and fragmented in different fields of study. This research is aimed to identify factors that promote resilience in hurricane-impacted areas by reviewing specialized literature. The study is qualitative, based on content analysis. Twenty-seven articles published between 2006 and 2019 were reviewed. The results show that resilience has a multidisciplinary character, although there is a coincidence in defining it as a system's ability to absorb, resist, and recover from disasters; the system is conceived as the representation of a totality made up of related elements (ecological, social, and economic, among others). A focus on physical infrastructure predominates, but a social approach begins to be distinguished. The factors that promote resilience are grouped into four categories: ecological, social, infrastructure, and mental health.

Resumen

La investigación científica sobre resiliencia ha incrementado paralelamente a los daños económicos y casualidades humanas generadas por el paso de huracanes. El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar los factores que promueven la resiliencia en áreas impactadas por huracanes, mediante la revisión de literatura especializada. El estudio es cualitativo basado en análisis de contenido de publicaciones científicas en diferentes campos de estudio. En específico, se revisaron veintisiete artículos publicados entre 2006 y 2019. La resiliencia es multidisciplinar y hay una coincidencia al definirla: la capacidad de un sistema para absorber, resistir y recuperarse de los desastres. Predomina un enfoque de infraestructura física, pero comienza a distinguirse uno social. Los factores que promueven la resiliencia se agrupan en cuatro categorías: ecológica, social, infraestructura y salud mental.

Résumé

Les pertes en vies humaines et les dégâts économiques causés par les ouragans ont motivé la recherche scientifique sur la résilience, définie comme la capacité d'un système à absorber, à résister et à se remettre des catastrophes. Les écrits publiés sont dispersés et fragmentés dans différents domaines d'étude. L'objectif de cette recherche était d'identifier les facteurs favorisant la résilience dans des zones touchées par les ouragans en examinant la littérature spécialisée. L'étude est qualitative, basée sur une analyse de contenu. Vingt-sept articles publiés entre 2006 et 2009 ont été examinés. L'approche en termes d'infrastructure physique prédomine, mais une approche sociale commence à se distinguer. Les facteurs favorisant la résilience peuvent être regroupés en quatre catégories : écologique, sociale, infrastructurelle et celle de la santé mentale.

Open access

Zhiding Hu and Victor Konrad

Abstract

Formerly localized, restricted border interaction between China and Southeast Asia has shifted to extensive cross-border engagement along regulated borders with a hierarchy of crossings and expansive borderlands. This expanded security system reveals rescaled and repositioned border security infrastructure and practice into a point and corridor system with vanguard crossings at Hekou, Mohan and Ruili. Fundamental shifts are concurrent focus on primary crossings and spatially extensive borderlands that encompass diminished attention to lesser crossings, beyond the border implementation of security checkpoints, mobile security, and compromise, to enable effective management of expansive borderlands. These borderlands mediate space and enable spatial reapportionment of security to accommodate greatly enhanced cross-border flows of people, goods, and information, thus shaping extensive spaces of exclusion and integration and focused places of exception.

Resumen

La anteriormente restringida interacción fronteriza China– Sudeste Asiático, cambió a un extenso compromiso de fronteras reguladas con una jerarquía de cruces y zonas transfronterizas expansivas. Este sistema ampliado de seguridad, revela la infraestructura y prácticas transfronterizas reescaladas y reubicadas como puntos y sistemas de corredores con cruces de vanguardia en Hekou, Mohan y Ruili. Los cambios se enfocan en los cruces primarios y extensión de fronteras, disminuyendo la atención a los cruces menores —después de la implementación de puntos de control de seguridad—, la seguridad móvil y el compromiso a una gestión fronteriza eficaz. Estas zonas permiten la redistribución espacial de la seguridad acomodando los intensificados flujos transfronterizos de personas, bienes e información, conformando espacios de exclusión e integración, así como lugares de excepción focalizados.

Résumé

L'interaction frontalière entre la Chine et l'Asie du Sud-Est, autrefois localisée et limitée, s'est transformée en un engagement transfrontalier réglementé avec une hiérarchie de passages et des zones frontalières étendues. Ce système de sécurité élargi révèle une infrastructure et une pratique de sécurité frontalière redimensionnées et repositionnées dans un système de points et de corridors avec des passages d'avant-garde à Hekou, Mohan et Ruili. Les changements fondamentaux se concentrent sur les principaux points de passage, les zones frontalières étendues, la mise en œuvre de points de contrôle de sécurité, la sécurité mobile et le compromis, pour permettre une gestion efficace des zones frontalières étendues. Ces dernières permettent la médiation de l'espace et la réaffectation spatiale de la sécurité afin d'accueillir des flux transfrontaliers de personnes, de biens et d'informations considérablement accrus, façonnant ainsi de vastes espaces d'exclusion et d'intégration et des lieux d'exception ciblés.

Open access

Shockwaves

Atmospheres beyond the Conflict City/Ordinary City Divide

Sara Fregonese

Abstract

Urban conflict literature has attempted new comparisons between contested cities in conflict zones and cities with no armed conflict. This literature tends to use representational frameworks around defensive planning and normative government discourses. In this article, I propose to expand these frameworks and to engage with epistemologies of lived experience to produce new relational accounts linking “conflict cities” with “ordinary cities”. The article accounts for the lived, sensory and atmospheric in exploring the legacies of conflict on the everyday urban environments. It then reflects on the everyday and experiential effects of counterterrorism in ordinary cities. While this is designed to minimize threat, it also alters urban spatiality in a way reminiscent of urban conflict zones. It then explores the unequal impacts of counterterrorism across urban publics, and their experiential connections with practices of counterinsurgency. The article is structured around two ‘shockwaves’ entwining lived experiences across seemingly unrelatable urban settings.

Open access

The State of Emergency at Home

House Arrests, House Searches, and Intimacies in France

Flora Hergon

Abstract

This article focuses on the massive house searches and house arrests that occurred during the state of emergency in France between 2015 and 2017. It draws from critical studies on counterterrorism as well as sociology of the intimate to analyze the aftermath of these measures on the Muslim households that experienced these procedures without being sentenced afterward. It examines how house arrests and searches redefine the respondents’ relationships to their domestic space and local environment as these places become spaces of fear, surveillance, discipline, and self-control. The analysis reveals a set of embodied and discursive strategies to prove an innocence that implies a reappropriation of state categories around social integration and the promotion of an acceptable and non-suspect religiosity.