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Cacher, festive et végétarienne

La nouvelle cuisine des fêtes juives

Sophie Nizard

Abstract: While meat food is valued socially and symbolically as a part of traditional Jewish culinary culture, vegetarianism and veganism among Jews increased quite spectacularly over the past decade, especially in the USA and in Israel. According to rabbis and to interviewees themselves this new way of eating rooted in the Hebrew Bible and in the rabbinic literature. Indeed causing any cruelty or suffering to animals is prohibited according to these sacred sources; this is an absolute principle. Such changes are having effects on the increment of the Cacher, products that are certified “green” and on the increase of vegan friendly restaurants in Israel. The narrative of Jewish women about their food and culinary practices shows those ongoing changes which are often not the result of ideological radical choices.

Résumé : Alors que la viande et les produits carnés sont fortement valorisés par la culture culinaire juive traditionnelle, on assiste depuis une dizaine d’années à un développement spectaculaire des pratiques végétariennes ou véganes en milieu juif, en particulier aux Etats-Unis et en Israël. Cette nouvelle manière de manger est justifiée par les mangeurs eux-mêmes et par nombre de rabbins comme prenant sa source dans la Bible hébraïque et dans la littérature rabbinique. En effet, l’interdit de causer de la souffrance aux animaux apparaît comme un principe fort des textes de la tradition juive. Ces changements sont repérables du fait de l’augmentation de l’offre en Israël (apparition de produits green et certifiés « sans matière animale » dans les supermarchés, multiplication de restaurants vegan friendly). Les discours de femmes juives sur leurs pratiques alimentaires et culinaires, recueillis au début de l’année 2020, viennent illustrer ces changements qui s’avèrent progressifs et sont rarement le résultat de choix idéologiques radicaux.

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Circling around the really Real in Iran

Ethnography of Muharram laments among Shi'i volunteer militants in the Middle East

Younes Saramifar

Abstract

Iranian Shi'i believers claim that capturing sorrow and lamentation in their fullest sense falls beyond language and reason. They constantly refer to their inability to articulate in order to explain martyrdom and highlight a form of unsaid that explains all that appears impalpable for them. I undertake a journey among Iranian Shi'i youth to trace the unarticulated and the sense of wonder generated via religious experiences. By way of an ethnography of Muharram lamentation ceremonies, this article highlights how the unarticulated and the unsaid are socially and politically used in service of Shi'i militancy. I explore those uncharted terrains in the darkness of the Lacanian Real and in terms of how the Real is authenticated in order to address how realities are crafted and religious subjectivities are enacted in the realm of militancy.

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Concerning Durkheim's 1899 Lecture ‘On Penal Sanctions’

Introduction, Translation Notes, and Comments

Ronjon Paul Datta and François Pizarro Noël

Abstract

This article provides a critical introduction to the first English translation of Durkheim's Saturday, 2 December 1899, lecture that he entitled ‘Course Outline: On Penal Sanctions’. It was written for the first class of the final year of his course ‘General Physics of Law and Morality’. We provide some context to the lecture, a description of the four-year long course at Bordeaux of which it was a part, offer notes on our translation, and discuss the salience of its content. Of particular note is Durkheim's sociological reasoning, and the critical impact of antisubjectivism on the development of his special theory of sanctions and conception of morality as part of social reality.

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Creating a reflective space in higher education

The case of a Swedish course for professional principals

Katina Thelin

This article considers the conditions, possibilities, and challenges of creating what is referred to here as a ‘reflective space’ within a higher education course for principals. It is informed by the findings of a qualitative research inquiry conducted in the interests of enhancing the principals’ learning and professional praxis and the university educators’ pedagogical praxis, within a Swedish course for school and preschool principals. Analysis of the findings highlighted two significant patterns. The first relates to the transformative benefits of creating a ‘reflective space’ for the principals attending the course. The second is more ambiguous and reflects their relation to and engagement with scientifically constructed knowledge. Based on these findings, the article offers considerations relevant for creating ‘reflective spaces’ as a means to enhance the quality of learning in higher education. Additionally, some guiding pedagogical implications are included in the final remarks.

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De Berlin à la conquête du monde

L’irrésistible expansion du döner kebab

Stéphane de Tapia

Abstract: Döner-kebab became the emblem of Turkish gastronomy. It is nowadays present in all the world. In fact, this culinary preparation is somewhat new in Turkey, and in its worldwide form of sandwich, it appears in Germany with the immigration of Turkish workers, and being offered by the Turks, the Greeks and the Lebanese cooks. However, it is not known by the other Turkic countries, except if imported by Turkish migrants. Turkish Gastronoms and Gourmets are often sad to see that this speciality became the symbol of Turkish cuisine in foreign countries.

Résumé : Le döner-kebab est devenu la spécialité emblématique de la cuisine turque, aujourd’hui consommé dans le monde entier. En réalité, c’est une préparation apparue relativement récemment en Turquie et sous sa forme internationale avec l’immigration turque en Allemagne. Il est revendiqué par les Turcs, les Grecs ou les Libanais, mais reste étranger aux autres pays turcophones, sauf importation récente apportée par les immigrés turcs. Gastronomes et gourmets turcs sont souvent attristés de voir que cette préparation est devenue le symbole de la cuisine turque à l’étranger.

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Doing global investments the Nordic way

The “business case” for Equinor's support to union work among its employees in Tanzania

Siri Lange

Abstract

In the Nordic countries, unions are represented in company boards and can influence companies’ policies toward labor abroad. This article focuses on the Norwegian national oil company Equinor and its support of unionization of its employees in Tanzania. This was inspired by the Nordic tradition of social dialogue between corporations and strong, independent unions. Corporation managers and union representatives tend to refer to this social dialogue as “the Norwegian model,” but this is a narrow conceptualization of the model that disregards the role of the state. I argue that while it is beneficial for the Tanzanian workers to be organized, it is probably also “good for business” to have unionized workers who have adopted the Nordic collaborative model, rather than a more radical union model.

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Durkheim en réunion (1ère partie)

Ses interventions à l'Assemblée des professeurs de la Faculté de Lettres de Bordeaux (1887–1902)

Matthieu Béra

Abstract

Thanks to an original archive, this article aims to characterize Durkheim's interventions at the Council of Professors in Bordeaux from 1887 to 1902. Frequency, tonality and above all the subjects of interest of his interventions are studied. We are able to see that he paid great attention to the students and their education (i.e. their courses, fees, grants, the problem of the predominance of Latin, proposals for reform of the competitive agrégation in philosophy) but that he was also interested in administrative subjects (modalities of attribution of new courses and new chairs, procedures of the council) and research subjects (subscriptions for the university library, life of the historical and local Annales du Midi). We finally discover that he certainly had administrative ambitions – to become the dean – ended by political circumstances (the Dreyfus Affair).

Résumé

Cet article vise à caractériser les interventions de Durkheim aux assemblées des professeurs de la Faculté de Lettres de l'université de Bordeaux entre 1887 et 1902 en se référent à une archive inédite. Sont présentées les fréquences, la tonalité et surtout ses domaines d'interventions. On voit qu'il s'intéresse d'abord aux étudiants et à leurs études (ouverture ou fermeture des cours, attribution des bourses, droits d'inscription, problème de la prédominance du latin, réforme de l'agrégation de philosophie), mais aussi aux questions administratives (attribution des chaires, fonctionnement du conseil de l'université), et aux questions liées à la recherche (abonnements en revues à la Bibliothèque universitaire, vie de la revue antiquisante des Annales du midi). On découvre qu'il n'était pas dépourvu d'ambitions administratives, que les circonstances politiques (l'affaire Dreyfus) vinrent contrarier.

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Antoine Savoye

Abstract

Despite the ostracism he maintained towards them, Le Play's social science continuers did not ignore Durkheim's work and commented on it – even if laconically – in their journals. The LePlayists loyal to the master's orthodoxy raised the same grievances against Durkheim throughout his academic life. They refused to accept his conception of the social fact as superior and prior to the individual, imposing itself on him with a coercive force. Their criticisms, however, were less virulent after Durkheim's death, as sociology proved a sustainable science whose project had become irrefutable. With the dissident LePlayists, the view is different. Emerging later, it dealt with the object of sociology and the method advocated by the author of the Règles. From the Tourvillians’ point of view, Durkheim's sociology does not adopt the best path for social science (investigation by direct observation), and neglects its process of coordination of social facts (the nomenclature developed by Tourville). Consequently, Durkheim's results are questionable. The debate the Tourvillians wanted to have with Durkheim took place post mortem, thanks to Bouglé and his students from the Centre de documentation sociale, and their engagement, in the 1930s, with Durkheimian sociology and social science.

Résumé

En dépit de l'ostracisme de Durkheim à leur égard, les représentants de la science sociale issue de Le Play n'ont pas ignoré son œuvre et l'ont commentée – même si laconiquement – dans leurs périodiques, d'une part, La Réforme sociale, d'autre part, La Science sociale et ses dérivés.

Les leplaysiens restés dans l'orthodoxie du maître nourrissent – de la Division du travail social aux Fondements élémentaires de la vie religieuse – les mêmes griefs à l'encontre de Durkheim. Volontiers polémiques, ils refusent sa conception du fait social qui, « supérieur et antérieur à l'individu … s'impose à lui avec une force coercitive prépondérante » (Clément, 1915). Leurs critiques perdent cependant de leur virulence après la mort de Durkheim, au fur et à mesure que la sociologie s'avère une science durable dont le projet devient irréfutable.

Du côté des partisans de la science sociale renouvelée par Henri de Tourville, l'appréciation de Durkheim est différente. Plus tardive, elle porte sur l'objet de la sociologie et sur la méthode prônée par l'auteur des Règles. Aux yeux des tourvilliens, celui-ci n'emprunte pas, à tort, la « voie royale » de la science sociale : l'enquête par observation directe, et néglige l'outil de coordination des faits sociaux qu'est la nomenclature mise au point par Tourville. Dès lors, les résultats auxquels aboutit Durkheim, par exemple dans les Fondements, sont sujets à caution (Descamps, 1912). La critique des tourvilliens est d'autant plus vive qu'elle se nourrit d'un dépit : Durkheim ne fait aucun cas de leurs travaux (Périer, 1913). Le débat qu'ils auraient souhaité engager n'aura lieu que post mortem, grâce à Bouglé et ses élèves du Centre de documentation sociale (Aron, Polin) qui joueront le jeu, dans les années trente, de la confrontation entre sociologie et science sociale.

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Editorial

Walking on the edge: Educational praxis in higher education

Lill Langelotz, Kathleen Mahon, and Giulia Messina Dahlberg

This special issue is a collection of articles that emerged from a series of symposia on praxis in higher education, aimed at critically exploring challenges and possibilities for educational praxis, including its role in the contemporary university. The collection highlights the need for asking critical and uncomfortable questions about what is and what could be in higher education. It calls for more focused attention on the consequences of what we do as teachers and university communities, both intentionally and inadvertently, so that higher education can be more socially just and responsive to student and societal needs amidst contemporary challenges. In explicating the concept of ‘educational praxis’, the editorial introduces the metaphor of ‘walking on the edge’ to illustrate the concept’s ‘uncomfortable dimension’ in terms of academics’ responsibility to engage critically with challenging issues in endeavours to address educational concerns.

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Editorial

Food and Cooking in the Middle East and North Africa

Éléonore Armanet and Christian Bromberger

Abstract: The article introduces the issue, in which the following topics are addressed: history of the anthropology of food; food choices and prohibitions; food, cooking and identity; cooking and rituals; cooking, sexual roles and social relations; and cooking, migrations and globalisation.

Résumé : L’article présente le numéro où sont abordés les thèmes suivants : histoire de l’anthropologie de l’alimentation ; choix et interdits alimentaires ; alimentation, cuisine et identité ; cuisine et rituels ; cuisine, rôles sexuels et relations sociales ; cuisine, migrations et globalisation.