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Barriers and borders

Human mobility and building inclusive societies

Anthony Turton

Open access

Alena Minchenia

Abstract

This article analyzes divisions within Belarusian protest communities by focusing on a particular group: the professional protesters. In Belarus, this group occupies a crucial position in between the international structures of democracy promotion and the internal attempts of political mobilization against the politics of President Aliaksandr Lukashenka. Performativity as an analytical perspective is employed to define positionality of professional protesters in relation to other political subjects and within the system of democracy promotion. The article shows implications of neoliberal rationality for social and political changes for protest communities in Belarus. It argues that the financial assistance obtained by protest professionals, as well as nondemocratic leadership style of the oppositional leaders, fills the Belarusian protest field with suspicions and accusations, add to a hierarchical and exclusionary way of participation in decision-making, and alienate activists from protest politics.

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Leyla Neyzi, Nida Alahmad, Nina Gren, Martha Lagace, Chelsey Ancliffe, and Susanne Bregnbæk

Sacrificial Limbs: Masculinity, Disability, and Political Violence in Turkey, By Salih Can Açıksöz. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2019. 272 pp. 19 illus. Paperback. ISBN 978-0-5203-0530-4.

For the Love of Humanity: The World Tribunal on Iraq, By Ayça Çubukçu. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018. 240 pp. 7 illus. Hardcover. ISBN 978-0-8122-5050-3.

Life Lived in Relief: Humanitarian Predicaments and Palestinian Refugee Politics, By Ilana Feldman. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2018. 320 pp. 20 illus. Hardcover. ISBN: 978-0-520-29963-4.

Peaceful Selves: Personhood, Nationhood, and the Post-Conflict Moment in Rwanda, By Laura Eramian. New York: Berghahn Books, 2019. 202 pp. 3 illus. Paperback. ISBN: 978-1-78920-493-3.

Counterrevolution: The Global Rise of the Far Right, By Walden Bello. Blackpoint: Fernwood Publishing, 2019. 196 pp. Paperback. ISBN: 978-1-77363-221-6.

Critique of Identity Thinking, By Michael Jackson. New York: Berghahn Books., 2019. 207 pp. Hardcover. ISBN 978-1-78920-282-3.

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Coronavirus with “Nobody in Charge”

An open reflection on leadership, solidarity, and contemporary regional integration

Harlan Koff and Carmen Maganda

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Curating Conflict

Four Exhibitions on Jerusalem

Sa'ed Atshan and Katharina Galor

Abstract

This article compares four Jerusalem exhibits in different geographical and political contexts: at the Tower of David Museum in Jerusalem, the Palestinian Museum in Birzeit, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the Jewish Museum Berlin. It examines the role of heritage narrative, focusing specifically on the question of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is either openly engaged or alternatively avoided. In this regard, we specifically highlight the asymmetric power dynamics as a result of Israel's occupation of East Jerusalem, and how this political reality is addressed or avoided in the respective exhibits. Finally, we explore the agency of curators in shaping knowledge and perspective and study the role of the visitors community. We argue that the differences in approaches to exhibiting the city's cultural heritage reveals how museums are central sites for the politics of the human gaze, where significant decisions are made regarding inclusion and exclusion of conflict.

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Eluding the Esculacho

A Masculinities Perspective on the Enduring Warrior Ethos of Rio de Janeiro's Police

Celina Myrann Sørbøe

Abstract

The Police “Pacification” Unit (Unidade de Polícia Pacificadora—UPP) program in Rio de Janeiro pledged to pacify both militarized police officers and the communities they patrolled: favelas occupied by armed drug traffickers. While the UPPs promoted a softer approach, police practices remained permeated with logics of violence. In understanding why, this article examines how an enduring “warrior ethos” influences the occupational culture of the police. I frame this warrior ethos by reference to notions of masculinity and honor both in the police culture and in the favela, and approach the warrior as a masculine performance. This masculinities perspective on the ways in which policing activities are framed and enacted provides important insights into why it was so difficult to change police attitudes and practices.

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Emergent Police States

Racialized Pacification and Police Moralism from Rio's Favelas to Bolsonaro

Tomas Salem and Bjørn Enge Bertelsen

Abstract

The Pacifying Police Units, rolled out in Rio de Janeiro ahead of the 2016 Summer Olympics, were part of a police intervention conceived to end the logic of war that characterized the city's public security policies. As such, it adopted “soft” strategies of policing aimed at reducing violence and asserting state sovereignty in “pacified” favelas. Drawing on a postcolonial framework of analysis, we argue that these favelas can be understood as sites for experiments in imperial statecraft, where a new set of socio-moral relations that we call police moralism were inscribed onto spaces and bodies. Pacification, in this context, means the reassertion of Brazil's historical racial order. In our conclusion, we read the moral order implemented in the favelas as a prefiguration of President Jair Bolsonaro's right-wing authoritarianism on a national scale.

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Elisabetta Nadalutti

Abstract

This article addresses the importance of understanding the ethical values that underpin cross-border cooperation (CBC). This is done by elaborating a theoretical framework that focuses on the ethical dimension of CBC. A clear distinction is drawn between an ethical and a normative dimension of CBC. The article argues that European CBC policies lack a defined conceptualization of ethical, humanistic, and value-laden bases. By considering three ethical values—rootedness, empathy, and justice—underpinning European governance, this research finds that the operationalization of these values helps to overcome a consumeristic approach, according to which people are passive consumers of CBC. The analysis shows why and how the operationalization of these key ethical values develops a cross-border community where people feel responsible for the territory perceived as a “common good.”

Resumen

Este artículo aborda la importancia de comprender los valores éticos que sustentan las actividades de cooperación transfronteriza (CBC) mediante un marco teórico centrado en explorar la dimensión ética de CBC. Una distinción clara plantea la dimensión ética de la CBC frente a la normativa. El punto ciego de las políticas de CBC europeas yace en la ausencia de una conceptualización definida de las bases éticas y humanísticas. Los valores éticos de arraigo, empatía y justicia sustentan las actividades de CBC, y su operacionalización ayuda a superar la aproximación consumista. El análisis muestra por qué y cómo la operacionalización de estos valores éticos contribuye a desarrollar una comunidad transfronteriza en la que las personas se sientan responsables del territorio percibido como un “bien común”.

Résumé

Pourquoi est-il important de mieux comprendre les valeurs qui sous-tendent les activités de coopération transfrontalière? Cet article aborde cette question à partir d'un cadre théorique centré sur l'exploration de la dimension éthique de la coopération transfrontalière en la distinguant de la dimension normative. Il soutient que la faiblesse des politiques européennes de coopération transfrontalière ne réside pas dans l'absence “normative”, mais dans le manque d'une conceptualisation précise de ses bases éthiques et humanistes. En considérant trois valeurs - l'enracinement, l'empathie et la justice - qui sous-tendent les activités de coopération transfrontalière, cette étude conclut que leur opérationnalisation aide à surmonter une approche consumériste de la coopération transfrontalière, selon laquelle les gens sont des consommateurs passifs. L'analyse montre pourquoi et comment l'opérationnalisation de ces trois valeurs contribue à développer une communauté transfrontalière dans laquelle les personnes se sentent responsables du territoire transfrontalier perçu comme un “bien commun”.

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James Gerber

Abstract

US cities and towns on the border with Mexico tend to have below-average incomes, while Mexican border cities and towns tend to be above the average of Mexico. Social scientists have not explained these differences from national averages in a convincing way. Nor have they described the characteristics of border cities and towns in ways that differentiate them from cities and towns in the interiors of their respective nation. The key to both puzzles is the fact that the institutional environment in the US–Mexico border region is binational in origin. Mexican institutions create externalities in the United States and vice versa. Recognition of this fact is a first step in dealing with the international public goods and common pool resources of the border region.

Resumen

Ciudades y pueblos a ambos lados de la frontera México–EE. UU. comparten características que las hacen diferentes de las comunidades en el interior de sus respectivas naciones. Por ejemplo, las diferencias de ingresos transfronterizos son más pequeñas que las diferencias nacionales y cada lado está fuertemente influenciado por políticas y eventos que se originan en el otro lado. Hay tres razones principales para estos efectos: proximidad, redes y externalidades. Este ensayo utiliza la perspectiva de economía institucional para argumentar que el ambiente institucional de las ciudades y pueblos fronterizos es binacional. El reconocimiento de este hecho es un primer paso en la gestión de los bienes públicos internacionales y los recursos comunes de la región fronteriza.

Résumé

Villes et villages des deux côtés de la frontière américano-mexicaine partagent des caractéristiques qui les différencient des communautés à l'intérieur de leurs nations respectives. Par exemple, les écarts de revenu de part et d'autre de la frontière sont plus réduits que les différences nationales, et chaque côté est fortement influencé par les politiques et les événements qui proviennent de l'autre côté. Trois raisons principales expliquent ces effets : la proximité, les réseaux et les externalités. Cet essai utilise la perspective de l'économie institutionnelle et soutient que l'environnement institutionnel des villes frontalières est binational. Cette reconnaissance est une première étape pour la gestion des biens publics internationaux et des ressources communes de la région frontalière.

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Dudziro Nhengu

Abstract

This article is a feminist theoretical examination of the nexus between migrants’ health and gender and attempts to fill the gap between existing gendered health and migration policies. Gender-specific challenges faced by female migrants include poor sexual and reproductive health rights, infant mortality, nutritional disorders, and violence. Non-communicable diseases provoke interruption of care in the absence of suitable health care systems and services. As policy makers struggle to develop suitable migration policies, the needs of women often fall through the cracks. Major findings are that migration policy design from micro to macro levels does not align with ratified international protocols on health, resulting in multiple vulnerabilities of female migrants. The study concludes that bilateral migration policy agreements should be comprehensive, binding, gender-sensitive, and participatory.

Resumen

Este es un examen teórico feminista del nexo entre salud de los migrantes y género, e intenta llenar el vacío entre las políticas existentes de salud y migración de género. Las mujeres migrantes enfrentan desafíos específicos de género incluyendo limitados derechos de salud sexual y reproductiva, mortalidad infantil, trastornos nutricionales y violencia. Las necesidades de las mujeres a menudo se quedan atrás en el desarrollo de políticas de migración adecuadas. Los principales hallazgos son que el diseño de la política de migración de los niveles micro a macro no se alinea con los protocolos internacionales de salud ratificados, resultando en múltiples vulnerabilidades de mujeres migrantes. El estudio concluye que los acuerdos de política bilateral de migración deben ser integrales, vinculantes, sensible al género y participativos.

Résumé

Cet article théorique examine, dans une perspective féministe, les liens entre la santé des migrants et le genre et tente de combler le fossé entre les politiques migratoires et de santé. Les défis spécifiques des femmes migrantes incluent l'accès à la santé sexuelle et reproductive, la mortalité infantile, les troubles nutritionnels et la violence. Leurs besoins sont souvent omis dans l'élaboration des politiques migratoires. Cet article montre que la conception de la politique migratoire à partir d'une échelle micro vers un niveau macro ne correspond pas aux protocoles internationaux ratifiés sur la santé, ce qui entraîne de multiples vulnérabilités des femmes migrantes. Il conclut que les accords bilatéraux en matière de migration doivent être exhaustifs, contraignants, sensibles au genre et participatifs.