Much has been said about the influential role of Forough Farrokhzad (1934–1967) in developing a feminine language in modern Iranian love poetry. Despite this, scholars have not systematically or theoretically examined what I call ‘the poetics of individuation’ in Forough’s lyrics. The present article analyses Forough’s poetic and individual paths of development as two inevitably parallel and intertwined routes. The article theorises that by removing a pre-imposed patriarchal sense of sin with regard to feminine love, Forough deconstructed the masculine narrative of good poetry in five highly significant ways via the feminine and self gaze. The article concludes that the poet’s commitment to poetry as a platform of expression was a means of her liberation and individuation as an independent feminine poet with voice and agency.
The Case of Forough Farrokhzad
Dave Lochtie, Emily McIntosh, Andrew Stork and Ben W. Walker (2018), Effective Personal Tutoring in Higher Education St. Albans: Critical Publishing, 222 pp., ISBN 978-1-910391-98-3
Andrew A. Szarejko
Many introductory courses in International Relations (IR) dedicate some portion of the class to international history. Such class segments often focus on great-power politics of the twentieth century and related academic debates. In this essay, I argue that these international history segments can better engage students by broadening the histories instructors present and by drawing on especially salient histories such as those of the country in which the course is being taught. To elaborate on how one might do this, I discuss how US-based courses could productively examine the country’s rise to great-power status. I outline three reasons to bring this topic into US-based introductory IR courses, and I draw on personal experience to provide a detailed description of the ways one can do so.
Explaining Unconventional Protest and Public Support for Actions against Food Waste
Benedikt Jahnke and Ulf Liebe
Food waste is a major challenge in affluent societies around the globe. Based on theories of protest and a mixed methods design combining qualitative, experimental, and survey research, we study the motives for, frequency of, and public support for dumpster diving in Germany. We find that dumpster diving as an unconventional daily protest action is related to more general protest against capitalist societies. It is motivated by both altruistic and egoistic concerns. The perceived legitimacy of violence and self-identity explain the frequency of dumpster diving. A factorial survey experiment with activists and the general public reveals strong similarities between the views of activists and those of other citizens in strong support of dumpster diving. This study demonstrates the usefulness of combining different empirical methods to study food activism.
Penny Welch and Susan Wright
This issue of Learning and Teaching: The International Journal of Higher Education in the Social Sciences includes authors from China, Canada, France and the United States. The first two articles analyse processes of developing international partnerships and networks promoting refugee access to higher education. The other three papers concern aspects of teaching and learning: online learning in accountancy; a flipped pedagogy in sociology; and the inclusion of national history in introductory international relations courses.
Students’ perceptions of usefulness in an upper-level accounting course
This study investigates how students in a distance-learning upperlevel accounting course perceive the effectiveness of different online teaching and learning (OTL) tools that are commonly used in business courses taught online. This topic is of critical importance, especially as the COVID-19 pandemic has pushed more courses to be OTL. A midsemester anonymous survey in an Accounting course at a public US university was conducted to measure students’ perceptions about different OTL course tools. Students were asked to provide their general assessment about how effective these tools were and how they believe these tools helped them learn. Analyses and discussions of the effectiveness of different tools and their link to earlier literature and how instructors can utilise the results of the OTL survey are presented.
Navigating Love, Desire and Loss in the Qaṣīda Poetry of South Sinai Muzīna Women
Matthew Ryan Sparks
This article examines the contemporary qaṣīda poetry of South Sinai Muzīna Bedouin women from an anthropological perspective, drawing primarily upon a history of emotions framework, as well as Bedouin ethnographic studies and Arabic literary criticism. The article argues that the composition and vocalisation of qaṣīda poetry in South Sinai is more than a performative art; it is a means of ‘navigating’ one’s emotions as a woman in a patriarchal society where emotional expression for both men and women is deemed inappropriate. In the poetry of Nādiyyah and Umm ‘Īd, we gain insight into the subjective lived experience of Bedouin women in South Sinai, as they attempt to poetically express their desire, elation, grief and passion, while simultaneously demonstrating their ability to ‘control’ their emotional states.
Students’ perceptions from an introductory sociology course
Ann Ward, Aja Antoine, and Wendy Cadge
This article describes one approach to flipping an introductory sociology course. To encourage students to practice ‘doing’ sociology, we designed a flipped classroom that included a ‘pay to play’ model, small group work and an emphasis on active learning during class time. With this course design, we linked in-class active learning with outside prework so that students could engage with critical sociological concepts and apply those concepts in practice. With this flipped design, the instructors observed that students were deeply engaged with the course topics and expressed positive perceptions of their learning and growth over the semester. As the landscape of university instruction shifts, this course design model may assist instructors looking to foster active and engaged learning remotely.
L’amour poétisé : genre, plaisir et nostalgie dans la poésie arabe et persane masculine, féminine et homoérotique
English Abstract: While love passes for being a feeling born in the West in the twelfth century, love poetry, in its declamatory or sung form, appeared in the sixth century among the Bedouin of the Arabian desert before flourishing in the Arabic cities, then Persian and finally in Europe. Love passion, excessive in essence, can be said only in excess with its joys and its distress. The man who experiences this state of passion is feminized, finding in the medium of poetry a socially legitimate space to express his emotions, including jealousy, nostalgia or blasphemy. Singing the beauty of the beloved and the disorder she or he inspires is a way of acknowledging his emotional vulnerability and also a mode of love conquest. But if the language of predation can be found in heterosexual and homosexual Arabic or Persian masculine poetry, such language is absent from feminine poetry, this difference revealing the asymmetrical polarity of desire according to gender.
French Abstract: Alors que l’amour passe pour être un sentiment né en Occident au douzième siècle, la poésie amoureuse, sous sa forme déclamatoire ou chantée, est apparue dès le sixième siècle chez les Bédouins du désert d’Arabie avant de fleurir dans le monde arabe citadin, puis persan et enfin occidental. L’amour passion, excessif par essence, ne pouvant se dire que dans la démesure, le discours amoureux est l’expression toujours hyperbolique du pathos avec ses joies et ses détresses. L’homme qui éprouve cet état de passion est féminisé, trouvant dans le médium de la poésie un espace d’expression socialement autorisé pour exprimer ses émotions, y compris celles relatives à la jalousie, à la nostalgie ou au blasphème. Chanter la beauté de l’objet aimé et le trouble qu’il inspire est autant une manière d’avouer sa vulnérabilité affective qu’un mode de conquête amoureuse. Mais si le langage de la prédation est patent dans la poésie hétérosexuelle ou homosexuelle, un tel langage est absent de la poésie féminine, différence révélatrice de la polarité asymétrique du désir selon qu’on est homme ou femme.
English Abstract: Unlike numerous traditions, poetic inspiration of Moorish poets is not spiritual but carnal because it takes root in the desire for a woman, who taste like Baudelaire’s Fleurs du mal. Love poems find their reason in the context of their production. In this case, the decisive moment of the meeting and the long-lasting impression it leaves on the poet. Love poems are not the privilege of a handful, they are primarly composed in the specific Arabic dialect (ḥassāniyya), with the aim of reaching the woman’s heart, like Bedouin Arabic pre-islamic poetry. So her first name, her body, her qualities and defects, from erotised become poetised.
French Abstract: À la différence de nombreuses traditions, l’inspiration poétique des poètes maures n’est pas spirituelle mais bien charnelle puisqu’elle s’enracine dans le désir pour une femme rencontrée, qui a le goût des Fleurs du mal de Baudelaire. Les poèmes d’amour, indissociables de l’itinéraire existentiel de son auteur, ne trouvent leur raison d’être que dans le contexte de leur production, en l’occurrence l’instant décisif de la rencontre amoureuse. Comme dans la poésie arabe antéislamique bédouine, la poésie amoureuse maure, composée dans le dialecte arabe local (ḥassāniyya), possède un but essentiellement pratique, gagner le coeur de l’aimée. Ainsi son prénom, son corps, ses qualités et ses défauts, d’érotisés deviennent poétisés.