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Fernando Antonio Ignacio González, Maria Emma Santos, and Silvia London

Abstract

This article analyses the recent evolution of territorial disparities in Argentina, measured by a Multidimensional Poverty Index, by carrying out a formal convergence analysis between agglomerates. In particular, the existence of absolute β-convergence and σ-convergence is tested. The information comes from the microdata of the Permanent Household Survey. The results suggest that, although an end-to-end analysis of the period shows a decrease in poverty accompanied by a reduction in territorial disparities between the main urban agglomerates in Argentina, when disaggregating by subperiods, it is evident that in periods of economic growth (essentially from 2003 to 2009), territorial disparities increased. Conversely, in periods of stagnation, these disparities decrease.

Resumen

Este articulo analiza la evolución reciente de las disparidades territoriales en Argentina, medida por un Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional, mediante un análisis formal de convergencia entre aglomerados. En particular, se testea la existencia de convergencia-β absoluta y convergencia-σ. La información proviene de los microdatos de la Encuesta Permanente de Hogares. Los resultados sugieren que, si bien en un análisis punta-a-punta del período se observa una reducción de la pobreza acompañada de una reducción de las disparidades territoriales entre los principales aglomerados urbanos de Argentina, al desagregar por subperíodos, se evidencia que en los períodos de crecimiento económico (esencialmente del 2003 al 2009) se incrementaron las disparidades territoriales. En tanto que en los periodos de estancamiento, estas disparidades se redujeron.

Résumé

Ce travail analyse l'évolution récente des disparités territoriales en Argentine, mesurée à partir d'un Indice multidimensionnel de la pauvreté, sur la base d'une étude de la convergence entre les agglomérations urbaines. Il teste en particulier l'existence de la beta convergence absolue et de la sigma convergence. Les informations proviennent de microdonnées de l'Enquête permanente des ménages. Bien qu'une analyse ponctuelle de la période montre une réduction générale de la pauvreté accompagnée d'une réduction des disparités territoriales entre les principales agglomérations urbaines d'Argentine, la désagrégation par sous-périodes permet d'observer que pendant les périodes de croissance économique (essentiellement de 2003 à 2009), les disparités territoriales se sont accrues alors qu'en période de stagnation elles se sont réduites.

Open access

Lucila Zárraga Cano, María del Pilar Jiménez Márquez, Víctor Manuel Molina Morejón, and Enrique Corona Sandoval

Abstract

Tour guides responsible for publicizing and preserving cultural and historical heritage are part of the development of tourist regions. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the importance of the tangible and intangible resources available to tour guides for the appreciation of the socio-cultural and environmental aspects of tourist territories that generate value, satisfaction, and competitiveness. The modeling of structural equations was employed with a sample of 375 tourists who hired guides in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. This analysis shows that the tangible and intangible resources guides provide allow them to be effective agents for the territory that promote the importance of the conservation of the physical, social, cultural, and environmental elements in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

Resumen

Los guías de turistas pueden actuar hacia el desarrollo de las regiones turísticas permitiendo conocer su patrimonio cultural e histórico. El objetivo es demostrar la importancia de los recursos tangibles e intangibles con que cuenta el guía para la apreciación de aspectos socioculturales y ambientales de territorios turísticos que generan valor, satisfacción y competitividad, a partir de la visión del turista. La metodología fue el modelado de ecuaciones estructurales, a una muestra de 375 turistas que utilizaron el servicio de un guía en el estado de Quintana Roo, México. Concluimos que los recursos tangibles e intangibles de los guías les permiten ser agentes dinamizadores del territorio, promueven la importancia de la conservación de los elementos, físico, social, cultural y ambiental en Quintana Roo, México.

Résumé

Les guides touristiques permettent de connaître le patrimoine culturel et historique et participent au développement des régions touristiques. L'article démontre l'importance des ressources tangibles et immatérielles dont dispose le guide pour mettre en valeur les aspects socioculturels et environnementaux des territoires touristiques en fonction de la satisfaction du touriste et de la compétitivité de la destination. La méthodologie s'appuie sur la modélisation des équations structurelles, à partir d'un échantillon de 375 touristes qui ont utilisé le service d'un guide dans l'état de Quintana Roo, au Mexique. Nous concluons que les ressources tangibles et immatérielles des guides leur permettent d'être des agents dynamiques du territoire et de promouvoir l'importance de la conservation des éléments physiques, sociaux, culturels et environnementaux au Quintana Roo.

Restricted access

Facing a Toxic Object

Nuclear Waste Management and its Challenges for Nature-Culture-Relationships

Christiane Schürkmann

Abstract

Over the past decades, industrial societies have produced a range of substances whose effects humans increasingly identify as toxic—a prominent example is radioactive waste and the question of its disposal. This fabricated “object of modernity” not only calls for the knowledge of the natural sciences, it also affects society at large in its immense challenge of figuring out how to dispose of this material and altogether “detoxify” society from its hazardous activity. The contribution develops a heuristic perspective on toxic objects, exemplified by analyzing documents with a focus on how different societal actors in Germany problematize high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in the context of finding a repository site. The perspective on toxic objects aims to strengthen a more nuanced view of “modern” relationships between human action and material activity with regard to hazardous socio-chemical fabrications as a consequence of an objectified nature.

Open access

Erick Alfonso Galán Castro, América Libertad Rodríguez Herrera, and José Luis Rosas-Acevedo

Abstract

This article analyzes three types of water governance in the sub-basin of La Sabana River–Tres Palos Lagoon from the perspective of Michel Foucault's governmentality. These processes—including the board of directors of the Metropolitan Water Operator Organism called the Drinking Water and Sewage Commission of the Municipality of Acapulco (CAPAMA), the Basin Council of the La Sabana River–Laguna de Tres Palos Lagoon, and an experience in community water management in the town of Kilómetro 30, in the same municipality of Acapulco—are addressed through analysis based on the following question: How is the relationship between citizens and officials for water management in the Acapulco region governed? The actors perceive a greater tendency for political control than democratization in decision-making.

Resumen

Este artículo analiza tres tipos de gobernanza del agua en la subcuenca del Río La Sabana–Laguna de tres Palos desde la perspectiva de la gubernamentalidad de Michel Foucault. Estos procesos—el Consejo de Administración del Organismo Operador de Agua metropolitano denominado Comisión de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado del Municipio de Acapulco (CAPAMA), el Consejo de Cuenca del Río La Sabana– Laguna de Tres Palos, y una experiencia de gestión comunitaria de agua en la localidad de Kilómetro 30, del mismo municipio de Acapulco—son observados mediante la pregunta: ¿Cómo se gubernamentaliza la relación entre ciudadanos y funcionarios para la gestión del agua en esa región? Los actores perciben una mayor tendencia al control político que a la democratización en la toma de decisiones.

Résumé

Cet article analyse trois types de gouvernance de l'eau dans le sous-bassin de la rivière La Sabana-Laguna de tres Palos du point de vue de la gouvernementalité de Michel Foucault. Ces instances -le conseil d'administration de l'organisme métropolitain de l'exploitant de l'eau appelé Commission de l'eau potable et des égouts de la municipalité d'Acapulco (CAPAMA), le conseil du bassin du Río la Sabana-Laguna de Tres Palos, et une expérience dans la gestion communautaire de l'eau dans la localité du Kilometro 30, dans la même municipalité d'Acapulco-, sont observées à partir de la question suivante: comment la relation entre les citoyens et les responsables de la gestion de l'eau est-elle gouvernementalisée dans cette région? Il en ressort qu'en ce qui concerne la prise de décision, les acteurs perçoivent davantage une tendance au contrôle politique qu'à la démocratisation.

Restricted access

Humans “in the Loop”?

Human-Centrism, Posthumanism, and AI

Nandita Biswas Mellamphy

Abstract

More and more scholarly attention is being paid to the challenges of governing artificial intelligence and emergent technologies. Most of the focus remains on questions of how to preserve the human-centeredness of increasingly advancing machine-driven technologies. I problematize discourses of “human-centered AI” that prioritize human control over nonhuman intelligences as a solution for the challenges posed by emergent technologies like artificial intelligence. Posthumanism provides a compelling theoretical basis for this line of questioning and for reimagining alternative ethical constructs. I outline and consider three distinct scenarios in which (a) humans are at the center of command and control, (b) humans and nonhumans share control, (c) human oversight is completely removed. I suggest that more attention could be given to critical and speculative ways of reimagining the concepts of “human,” “nonhuman,” and human/nonhuman relations.

Open access

Richard Meissner and Jeroen Warner

Abstract

What role can non-diplomats play in managing and altering power relations in transboundary river basins? We answer this by investigating the lobbying efforts of indigenous peoples to stop the construction of the planned Orokawe (Baynes) dam on the Kunene River. The Kunene River forms part of the border between Angola and Namibia with several concluded treaties in place. These treaties set the context of bilateral state diplomacy concerning the allocation and management of a transboundary water resource. The theoretical foundation of our investigation are ideational power conceptualizations and practice theory. We discuss the employment of ideational power in transboundary rivers with numerous practices, such as lobbying and transnational network development. This article argues that actors consciously practice power during transboundary water diplomacy.

Resumen

¿Qué papel desempeñan los no-diplomáticos en la gestión y modificación de las relaciones de poder en las cuencas fluviales transfronterizas? Respondemos investigando los esfuerzos de cabildeo de los pueblos indígenas para detener la construcción de la presa Orokawe (Baynes) en el río Kunene, entre Angola y Namibia. La asignación y gestión de este recurso hídrico transfronterizo, cuenta con varios tratados concluidos que establecen el contexto de la diplomacia estatal bilateral. La base teórica de esta investigación son las conceptualizaciones del poder ideacional y la “teoría de la práctica”. El empleo del poder ideacional en ríos transfronterizos se refleja en prácticas como el cabildeo y el desarrollo de redes transnacionales. Este artículo sostiene que los actores practican conscientemente este poder durante la diplomacia del agua transfronteriza.

Resumé

Quel rôle les non-diplomates peuvent-ils jouer dans la gestion et la modification des relations de pouvoir dans les bassins fluviaux transfrontaliers? Nous répondons à cette question en enquêtant sur les efforts de lobbying des peuples autochtones pour arrêter la construction du projet du barrage d'Orokawe (Baynes) sur le fleuve Kunene. Le Kunene forme une partie de la frontière entre l'Angola et la Namibie, pays entre lesquels plusieurs traités sont en vigueur. Ces traités définissent le contexte de la diplomatie bilatérale des États concernant le partage et la gestion de la ressource en eau transfrontalière. Les fondements théoriques de notre enquête reposent sur les conceptualisations du pouvoir idéationnel et la théorie de la pratique. L'article aborde les nombreuses pratiques du pouvoir idéationnel dans les cours d'eau transfrontaliers, telles que le lobbying et le développement de réseaux transnationaux. Il soutient que les acteurs exercent consciemment le pouvoir dans le cadre de la diplomatie transfrontalière de l'eau.

Free access

Introduction

Posthuman? Nature and Culture in Renegotiation

Kornelia Engert and Christiane Schürkmann

Abstract

The contributions in this special issue focus on different phenomena and conceptual approaches dealing with “the Posthuman” as a discourse of renegotiating nature-culture-relationships that has emerged over the past decades. The selected articles from fields of sociology, political science, and social anthropology demonstrate how to work with and discuss posthumanistic and post-anthropocentric perspectives, but also how to irritate and criticize universal assumptions of particular posthuman approaches empirically and theoretically. The introduction aims to position the particular contributions in a field of tension between de- and re-centering human beings and human agency.

Open access

Latin America

A challenging prospect for regionalism

Ernesto Vivares

Abstract

This article contends that the prospects of regionalism in Latin America are highly uncertain. In the light of the inequality that has historically characterized the region, the commodity-oriented dependence, and the political instability, the region will not be able to face the future without cooperation. This article argues that Latin America must aim at pragmatic and non-ideological cooperation to focus on regional development. To reach that goal, the article discusses how both the traditional development formulas of neoliberalism and neodevelopmentalism have been unable to deliver consistent responses to the current regional problems in the face of COVID-19 and the changing global order.

Restricted access

Franziska von Verschuer

Abstract

Since the mid-twentieth century global modernization of agriculture, seed banking has become a core technoscientific strategy to counteract agrobiodiversity loss and ensure future food security. This article develops a post-anthropocentric reading of the Svalbard Global Seed Vault as a nodal point of global ex situ conservation efforts. Based on qualitative expert interviews, I explore the rationality of crisis and salvation that underlies these efforts and discuss its roots in an anthropocentric relation to nature as a resource. By arguing that the latter produces the crises that conservation measures intend to counteract, I show how the Seed Vault conserves this resource-orientation. I then illustrate a concurrent unruliness of more-than-human worldly becoming the embracing of which, I argue, is a way for conservationism to cultivate different, non-crisic futures.

Open access

Harlan Koff and Carmen Maganda

After almost one year of global pandemic, the overlapping crises caused by COVID-19 have worsened in most regions, and people have become weary of both the coronavirus and government measures aimed at limiting its spread and collateral impacts. Many people clamor for a return to “normal.” With the announcement in November 2020 that vaccine tests have shown promising results, it seems that a medical solution to the health pandemic could be a defining feature of the first few months of 2021.